Saturday, August 31, 2019

Identify the Individual at Risk of Skin Breakdown and Undertake the Appropriate Risk Assessment Essay

Upon arriving at the care home, I shut the door behind me, clocked in using my time card and signed the staff log book which is a requirement of the fire safety policy. Prior to starting my shift, I attended the hand over held in the staff office with closed doors to maintain confidentiality and privacy of the residents. The hand over gives me important changes in the resident’s health and social care needs, requirements and procedures that need implementing during the shift. One of the residents I usually care for is Mrs H who has just come back from a hospital admission. According to her care plan Mrs H was diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4 which are predisposing factors for pressure sores. She is bed bound, cannot weight bear and had just undergone Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) for fracture on her left tibia fibula which left her immobilised. She is also incontinent of urine and faeces which are all predisposing factors to sore development. As one of her primary carer, I was assigned to carry out a risk assessment for skin breakdown with the use of the Waterlow Scale. I knocked on Mrs H’s room before entering as a sign of respect for her privacy and greeted her good morning. I asked how she is and she smiled which means she is fine as she has difficulty speaking. I asked her if she would like to have her bed bath and she said â€Å"yes please†. I informed her that I also need to carry out a risk assessment for skin breakdown to identify if she is at risk of developing a pressure sore. I explained the procedures that she will expect, the reasons behind these and I asked for her permission to carry on. She obliged by softly saying â€Å"ok† in a very low voice. Before starting the assessment, I gathered all the things that I need. I observed standard precautions for infection control by washing my hands with soap and water and drying them with disposable paper towels. I wore a disposable plastic apron and donned a pair of disposable gloves to prevent the spread and transfer of infection from one person to another. With the help of my colleague, I gently and carefully took off Mrs H’s night dress informing her every step that I make to make her aware and to encourage her cooperation. I kept it in yellow laundry bag as per organisational policy on infection control and prevention. I covered her body with bath towels to maintain her privacy and keep her warm. I washed her face and body with the use of disposable Mediwipes with soap and warm water. I dried her up using the towel to keep her from freezing. I took off her nappy pad and washed her private front part properly and dried her afterwards. Then I informed Mrs H that I need to turn her on her side so that I can wash and examine her back. With coordinated movements from my colleague, we gently and carefully turned her on her side, taking special care not to put any undue pressure on her bad leg to prevent any further injury. I examined her back side taking note of pressure points or bony prominences on her shoulders, sacrum, elbows, ankles and heels. Her skin on her shoulders, spine, elbows and heels look fine but there is a redness on her sacral area which feels hotter than other areas of her skin. I asked Mrs H if she feels any pain in her bottom and she said â€Å"yes† in a very low voice. On her left heel is an abrasion which she developed while she was in the hospital. I washed her back and her bottom gently and dried them up properly as excess moisture can aggravate her skin condition. I put her soiled nappy pad in a plastic bag to be disposed of in the clinical waste bag. I applied aqueous creme on her skin especially on bony prominences to prevent drying. I applied sudocrem on her sacral area to soothe and to protect and help heal her skin. I put on a clean nappy pad on her, put on clean clothes and positioned her on her right side to relieve the pressure on her sacral area, using cushions to make her comfortable. The nurse-in-charge came inside the room to check on her left heel wound and I asked her how to clean it and what dressing should I use for it. She said I can clean it with sterile water and sterile gauze, dry it up and apply Versiva dressing for protection as advised by the tissue viability nurse. I disposed of my gloves and donned on a clean pair. I washed Mrs H wound on her heel with sterile water and sterile gauze, dried it up and applied Versiva dressing. I put on a pressure relief cushion on her left foot to relieve pressure, kept it supported and in a comfortable position. I thanked Mrs H for her cooperation during the procedure. I informed her about the condition of her skin and reassured her that it is well taken care of. I disposed of my apron, gloves and soiled dressings in the plastic bag, tied it and disposed it in a clinical waste bag. I washed my hands with soap and water again and dried it up to prevent the spread of infection.

Friday, August 30, 2019

“Pride and Prejudice”: Lady Catherine and Elizabeth Bennet Essay

In Jane Austen’s novel, Pride and Prejudice, Lady Catherine and Elizabeth Bennet are absolute opposites. Jane Austen portrays Elizabeth Bennet as an intelligent, independent, yet strong character, in a soft and feminine manner. The cruel and dominating personality traits are left for characters such as Lady Catherine. In Jane Austen’s novel, Pride and Prejudice, Lady Catherine and Elizabeth Bennet are absolute opposites. Elizabeth is a realistic and masterful character, which makes all her qualities of strength and independence intensify and create an ideal stability between her emotions and what is reality. Her passion and overwhelming capability to stand her ground is just an introduction into her ability to be able to oversee the weak, the naà ¯ve and the dominating. Elizabeth proves her daring abilities in her meeting with Lady Catherine, which leads to a battle between respect and independence. Elizabeth tested Lady Catherine’s desires for personal information by holding back her true story, and Elizabeth suspected that she was â€Å"the first creature who had ever dared to trifle with such dignified impertinence†(124-125). Elizabeth is a character who has enough courage to acknowledge her faults and her inaccuracy. After reading Darcy’s letter, she distinguished the fact that she had judged him incorrectly. She scolded herself for her inaccurate opinions and for being blinded by her thoughts. She wasted no time in facing up to the unpleasant truth about herself â€Å"How despicably I acted. Till this moment I never truly knew myself†(156). Her character is greatly respected and creditable for admiration. She is a character that is undeniably strong and intellectual, and at the same time fascinating. Lady Catherine is introduced into the novel as an exceedingly wealthy character. She has a desire to let others know of their inferior rank. Lady Catherine takes pleasure in involving herself in other people’s affairs. Without any hesitation, she recommends her advice whenever she feels necessary. She believes it is part of her right to inform people of how they should conduct their lives. She voices her opinion periodically throughout the novel, and makes her opinions clear, You know I always speak my mind, and I cannot bear the idea of two young women traveling post by themselves†¦ I have the greatest dislike in the world of that sort of thing†¦ I am glad it occurred to me to mention it†¦(pg.158-159). One of Lady Catherine’s most evident characteristics is her necessity and enjoyment of receiving flattering compliments. She loves to hear compliments from others because it allows her to keep her authority intact. Lady Catherine isn’t full of independence and strength because she thrives off other people’s inferior status. â€Å"Lady Catherine will not think the worse of you for being poorly dressed. She likes to have the distinction of rank preserved† (Mr. Collins, p.120). Lady Catherine is an uncomplicated character that feels disgusted by others who try to contradict her. Throughout the novel it is evident that the characteristics of Elizabeth Bennet and Lady Catherine, are at many times, repealed against each other. Most noticeable to the novel is that Lady Catherine seems to completely lack the capacity for reflection and self-awareness, while Elizabeth masters these traits and is able to use them to strengthen her personal traits. The two personalities of Lady Catherine and Elizabeth are so offset that it creates a feel of constant hostility between the two characters. Jane Austen’s novel, Pride and Prejudice, represents the qualities of independence and lack of self-awareness between the two characters, Lady Catherine and Elizabeth Bennet, who differ completely.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Commonwealth Government's Work Choices Legislation Essay

Commonwealth Government's Work Choices Legislation - Essay Example It rationalized the existing classification structures so they remain relevant to the modern workplace relations system while recognizing the different skill sets of employees. Revitalized dismissal laws whereby the Government will protect all employees from unlawful termination and dismissal on discriminatory grounds such as race, colour, sex, union membership, pregnancy, etc. Any liberalization moves are bound to inconvenience some self-serving caucus who are the beneficiaries of non-competitive enterprise arrangement. In Australia it included Trade Unions, Business Community and opposition political parties who has the natural accumen to fish in muddled water. In a modern democratic set up such constitutional disputes finally land up in the highest court of law for legitimacy. The Australian High Court decreed this with a majority verdict in favour of the government. The organized working class consists of a large chunk of the population in any country. They mainly constitute the middle class and are the opinion makers and can exert envious influence on the polity of a nation. In a democratic country they constitute sizable vote bank, which a political party can ignore at their own peril. The successful Bolshevist Revolution, the decisive defeat of Communism in Germany with the help of organized labor movement, the progressive metamorphosis of American capitalism into a "welfare capitalism", etc. are indelible models where working class became important tools to usher in lasting impact on the contemporary society. Therefore, we see a deep-rooted nexus between political parties and trade unions all over the world. Theirs is a husband and wife relationship, indispensable to both. With mutual understanding and cooperation both can survive the travails of life; and any impudence on the part of one can destroy the prospects of both. In most modern de mocratic countries we see political parties with the imbibed philosophy and names of the working class struggle. Instances are many where trade union leaders have risen to positions to guide the destiny of their nation. It is therefore, inevitable for any ruling setup in a country to succumb to the influence of the organized labor unions. The intense lobbying by trade unions for the passage of The Employee Free Choices Act of America, by the US Law-Makers is a live example of the trade union domination over political parties. Recently, with Democrats gaining majority in the Congress the Bill was passed in the House of Representatives and is struggling to get past the Senate where Democrats do not have majority. It will certainly become a law after the next presidential elections due to strong labor pressures and lobbying. Background to the Work Choices Legislation The Liberal and National Coalition's 2004 Election Manifesto1 had committed to the electorate to introduce a "Flexible Workplace Relations" in the economic activities of the country.A New Workplace

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Accounting for the Substance of Transactions Essay

Accounting for the Substance of Transactions - Essay Example Though giving an account of the economic summary of the activities of the organization is a straightforward job, generally, an effort is made to give better perception of the organization to be presentable to the Shareholders and other stakeholders by inflating the earnings or assets or deflating the liabilities or losses or manipulation of depreciation methods, stock valuation and accounting development expenditure. Here, two factors influence the presentation. The legal provisions and accounting provisions. The presentation which is correct in legal angle may not be founded on sound accounting principles and may vary from the underlying economic reality. The managements, may, therefore, sometimes choose the best and most advantageous of these two options to present the economic substance of the transactions according to their wishes. Certain artificial transactions/combination of transactions undertaken by the organization are such that it is very difficult to assess the net effect the entire exercise. The assessment of net effect of such various activities of the enterprise may be captioned as â€Å"substance† of a transaction. "substance" of a transaction. Assessment of the substance of the transactions is found necessary to provide reliable, fair and accurate information about corporate performance and to ascertain the actual state of affairs of the business organization. The need is felt very seriously as the various distortions in Financial statements are on the increase, among other things, defining the nature of assets and liabilities and inclusion or non-inclusion of such assets and liabilities in Books of Accounts. Such events not only distort the substance of the economic activity of the organization but also fail to project the actual problems faced by the organization, depriving the organization to initiate remedial steps to address the real problems. Accounting reforms comprising provisions for reporting of substance of transactions are therefore, found necessary. Statement of principles of Accounting prescribe the activities that should be reported on in financial statements, the various dimensions of those activities that should be prominently furnished, the features that information should have if it is to be mentioned in the financial statements. The main role of the Statement of principles is to provide conceptual input into the ASB's work on the development and review of accounting standards. The Statement is not, therefore, neither an accounting standard nor does it contain any requirements on how financial statements are to be prepared. The prominent among the principles for reporting the Substance of the Transactions is definition of assets and liabilities, accounting for subsidiary undertakings, and the activities to be excluded from the business organization's financial statements and those to be included, thus setting standards for presentation of Financial statements. Factors like legal requirements, cost-benefit considerations, i ndustry-specific issues, and the desirability of evolutionary change and implementation issues are also covered. Reporting the Substance of Transactions' implies the addition of Application Note G 'Revenue Recognition'. This clears the ambiguity regarding the treatment of revenue and, in particular, the treatment of turnover (as a subset of revenue). This Application Note deals with revenue recognition from the supply of goods or services by a seller to its customers. It sets out basic principles of revenue recognition which should be applied in all cases. It also provides specific guidance for

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business Research Paper

Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business - Research Paper Example This essay stresses that passive responsibility refers to a case where the company shuns from indulging in socially risky acts while active responsibility is whereby companies engage in actions that directly advance social objectives. This paper declares that any successful attempt starts with the customer by understanding their tribulations and attempting to establish how these problems are related to their needs. With the increasing world economy currently, customers are getting to be more of a mix of international and local consumers. Today’s companies are trying to achieve competitive gain by providing services or products to attain the requirements of the international consumer. To make these companies to effectively develop and market their goods and or services globally a clear understanding of the social and ethical responsibilities should be established for all stakeholders. These ethical and social responsibility standards should be incorporated in a company’s DNA giving room for more conventional and positive effect on all stakeholders. Ethics usually centers on conduct or ethical evils that occur in a company, institution or any business enterprise. The conduct is thus analyzed from the p osition of an individual’s behavior or organizational behavior in general. It therefore essential that any time the firm’s morale standards are polished, the customer’s attitude and that of the society as a whole is positive towards the firm. Henceforth, the income accumulated form the sales are excessively likely to remain at all times high. For example I n the current world, big corporation’s opera ting internationally support their companies’ image with ethical standards and social responsibility bonds. In the past and even in the modern world, business involved inhuman activities like human trafficking, colonialism and slavery, this type of business only met the benefits of one party against the other. However, with the emergence of business ethics, the world of business has been transformed to a point where the demands of both parties are achieved without interfering with human rights as suggested by Trevino and Nelson (147). Therefore a compa ny is required to make as much profits as it can as it conforms to the ethical guidelines of the society both those set in the law and those personified under customary ethics. Ethics and social responsibility overcomes every aspect, small of big in international business. The following are some of the practical business areas where this is a main concern: Management strategy A great level of sustainable success is attainable in an employee/customer facilitating environment. Where employees, consumers and suppliers are treated kindly, their

Monday, August 26, 2019

Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 72

Assignment - Essay Example The health care sector is highly complex and therefore requires utmost efficiency in terms of making decisions. When making decisions concerning a given problem or situation it is necessary to first make sure that the problem at hand is well understood. A detailed analysis of the problem may be laid down in a bid to ensure that the decisions made leave no loop holes. Failure to understand the situation or problem in play may lead to wrong decisions without having solved the real problem. For instance, a research showed that experienced nurse executives make quick decisions without â€Å"a thorough analysis, a strategy that may result in the right decision for the wrong problem† (Effken, Verran, Logue, and Hsu 2010, p.3). This implies that an analysis of the problem plays a great role in making the right decisions. After the analysis, all possible solutions should be stipulated in line with the situation at hand. All alternatives presented should be received with an open mind and an alternative should only be dismissed due to its inability to provide a solution and not just because it may be unpleasant to a particular individual. Carefully considering all alternatives the best one should be identified followed by a suitable execution plan. Having taken the best course of action, it is highly likely that the right decision will be made. Effective decisions should give solutions to the root causes not just the general problems thereby ensuring that the problem is not frequently recurrent. This may be particularly important in nursing to ensure that the diagnosis given attains full cure of the patients. In making managerial decisions, it is important to first try to predict the implications at each level since they affect the whole organization. Effective decision making is important since it leads to achievement of organizational goals. Realization of the set objectives is only possible through cooperation across the entire

Sunday, August 25, 2019

What Customers Don't Know Won't Hurt Them, Will It Case Study

What Customers Don't Know Won't Hurt Them, Will It - Case Study Example Thirdly, there is another cause of conflict in that there is a clash in goals and objectives. The objective of the company is to maximize profit while the objective of Elena is to work hard and transparently so that she can climb the management hierarchy. This causes the conflict since the objective of Elena is hampered by the lies the management is employing. This leads to another cause of conflict, which is the substandard job performance by Elena. Another source of conflict is the difference over procedures and methods used by the management. Elena prefers being truthful but the management prefers using lies to please customers. The last major cause of conflict is non-compliance with the set rules and principles. The management recommends using lies while Elena prefers being truthful. 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Identify two conflict resolution strategies that would be effective in the short-term and two that would be effective in the long-term in this situation. Discuss why these strategies would be effective, given the sources of conflict you have identified. Two conflict resolution strategies can be used in this case for a short term. One of them is compromise where Elena can compromise with the situation in the company to save her job. The second strategy that she can employ is collaboration. Elena can collaborate with the company in order to save her career. These decisions will have impacts in both the long term and short term (Aryan college). The sources of power according to Elena’s case reward power. Elena works hard in the company knowing very well that hard work will be rewarded by climbing the management hierarchy. The second source of power and that raises conflict is the coercive power. Elena is afraid of her supervisor using this power against her since it can lead to demotion or loss of the job. The third source of power that Elena encounters which involves her supervisor is the referent power. Elena works

History of Black and Indian relations among the Florida Seminoles Essay

History of Black and Indian relations among the Florida Seminoles - Essay Example As early as 1689, Africans fled from British-American colonies to the Spanish controlled Florida in search of freedom. A new influx of these freedom-seeking blacks reached Florida during the American Revolution. During this Revolution, the American slaves agreed to fight for the British in exchange for liberty. They built settlements near the Seminoles as both had a common interest to escape slavery. They built separate villages of thatched-roof houses surrounded by fields of corn and swamp rice, and they maintained friendly relations with the mixed population of refugee Indians (Joseph A Opala). The Seminoles Indians also allied with the British for this fight. This brought the two – the Africans and the Indian Seminoles - into increased contact with each other. Members of both the communities sided with the British during the War of 1812. This helped them to solidify their ties. Gradually the two groups came to view themselves as part of the same organized tribe. Their relat ions solidified to such an extent that the US Government could not break them apart. Intermarriages and friendships were common. They became such close allies that they came to be known as the Black Seminoles. At this point when the Africans and the Indian Seminoles first came into contact, the Seminoles were themselves recent immigrants to Florida. The Africans adopted their clothing and the Indians acquired taste for rice and appreciation for their music and folklore. At that time, they were known as Gullahs.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

College Is Important Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

College Is Important - Essay Example However, it is common knowledge that good educational institutions can contribute a lot towards the overall development of a student’s personality. A classroom very often functions as a cross section of the society to which students have to venture out after their studies. Those students who maintain good communication and inter-personal skills will naturally be better equipped to face the challenges in life gracefully. At the same time, a group environment provides opportunities for timid and uncommunicative students to learn socially desirable behavior pattern in a friendly environment. Instead of typecasting students into various categories, good colleges give equal opportunity for everyone to grow, even as they retain the essence of their inner personality. The challenges one has to meet in a college are comparable to those in real life. One gets enough opportunities to work under pressure and meet deadlines. Peer pressure very often brings the best out of many students. Good teachers guide them through the difficult phases in their learning process, and some teachers even go out of their way to help out students in major crises of life. One learns in colleges to interact diplomatically with people from all spheres of life. The demand to work systematically helps students immensely in their life outside college as well. The sense of discipline in classrooms based on a democratic spirit helps students act properly in situations of conflict. Life in college offers an opportunity to explore one’s socializing skills and also to participate in group sports. The best thing about studying in a big campus is the free access to gym, swimming pool and sports stadium. One gets to make use of such facilities which are otherwise very difficult to afford in life. Those who are inclined to make use of these facilities get an opportunity to combine their studies

Friday, August 23, 2019

Water Quality and Environmental Health Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Water Quality and Environmental Health - Essay Example Water is also vital as a habitat for both freshwater and marine plants and animals (Vale, 2006). Pollution of the surface water is one of the global concerns. While in many less industrialized parts of the world, diseases from inadequate water supply and water contamination are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, in United States the concerns towards this precious natural resource is quite different. There are more than 53,000 community water systems providing water to the public in the United States. Public water suppliers process 38 billion gallons of water per day for domestic and public use. Approximately 1.8 million miles of distribution mains carry water in the United States and Canada. About 800,000 water wells are drilled each year in the United States for domestic, farming, commercial, and water testing purposes. Typically, households consume approximately 30% of their water for outdoor use, such as watering the lawn. Inside, toilets use the most water, with an average of 27 gallons per person per day (AWWA, 2006). The availability of freshwater to meet the demands of a growing and increasingly affluent population while sustaining a healthy natural environment is based on several factors such as availability of good quality water, the high costs of developing additional surface-water supplies, the importance of reliable supplies of high-quality water for human and environmental health and economic development; and the shortcomings of institutions for allocating scarce supplies in response to changing supply and demand conditions (Frederick, 1995). The differences between developed and developing countries are many, but few have greater impact on human welfare than the availability of safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. Water- related diseases and illnesses exact devastating impacts on mortality and morbidity; prospects for economic development are also decreased by the diminished health

Thursday, August 22, 2019

A raisin in the sun coursework Essay Example for Free

A raisin in the sun coursework Essay In this essay I am going to analyse how Lorraine Hansberry presents the transformation of Walter in the play A raisin in the sun. The pages Im going to concentrate on are pages 1787 and 1788. A raisin in the sun portrays a few weeks in the life of the Youngers, an African-American family living on the South Side of Chicago in the 1950s. When the play opens, the Youngers are about to receive an insurance check for $10,000. This money comes from the deceased Mr. Youngers life insurance policy. Each of the adult members of the family has an idea as to what he or she would like to do with this money. The matriarch of the family, Mama, wants to buy a house to fulfil a dream she shared with her husband. Mamas son, Walter Lee, would rather use the money to invest in a liquor store with his friends. He believes that the investment will solve the familys financial problems forever. Walters wife, Ruth, agrees with Mama, however, and hopes that she and Walter can provide more space and opportunity for their son, Travis. Finally, Beneatha, Walters sister and Mamas daughter, wants to use the money for her medical school tuition. She also wishes that her family members were not so interested in joining the white world. Beneatha instead tries to find her identity by looking back to the past and to Africa. Later on in the play, the Youngers fight over their competing dreams. Ruth finds out that she is pregnant and starts to worry about the financial problems that may happen if she keeps it. Mama puts $3,500 down payment on a house and gives $6,500 to Walter from which he has to give Beneatha some for her medical school tuition. Walter on the other hand doesnt give Beneatha her share of her money, instead gives it to Willy his friend who runs away with it. The house is in Clybourne Park, an entirely white neighbourhood. When the Youngers future neighbours find out that the Youngers are moving in, they send Mr Lindner, from the Clybourne Park Improvement Association, to offer the Youngers money in return for staying away. The Youngers refuse the deal. In the meantime, Beneatha rejects her suitor, George Murchison, whom she believes to be shallow and an assimulationist. Subsequently, she receives a marriage proposal from her Nigerian boyfriend, Joseph Assegai, who wants Beneatha to get a medical degree and move to Africa with him. The Youngers eventually move out of the apartment, fulfilling the familys long-held dream. Their future seems uncertain and slightly dangerous, but they are optimistic and determined to live a better life. They believe that they can succeed if they stick together as a family and resolve to defer their dreams no longer. Various stage directions are used to show Walters feelings for example, when Ruth informs Walter that Mr Lindner is here a long minute passes and Walter slowly gets up from his room. This shows that Walter is not eager to meet Mr Lindner so he takes his time. When Walter slowly and awkwardly walks out of his room passing the back of his sleeve across his mouth from time to time makes him seem as if he is a small chid who is sloppy and awkward. This is how he behaves throughout the play and shows the childish side of him. When Walter looks down at his boys eyes he realises that Travis is the 6th generation in his family to live in America and should look to set an example for future generations. While Walter talks to Mr Lindner he looks around and shifts from one foot to the other and makes short pauses in his speech showing that he is unsure and frightened about speaking out aloud in front of his family. He tries to get the point across that they are very plain people. Walter again looks away from Mr Lindner and down at his shoes and then back up at him. This shows that he cant maintain eye contact with Mr Lindner. This makes Walter feel shy because he is speaking to someone who is higher classed and who he feels is superior to him. He again tries to get the point across that they are plain people by telling Mr Lindner their current situation such as how he has been a chauffer most of his life and how Ruth is a domestic worker in peoples kitchens. All this confuses Mr Lindner as he doesnt know what Walter is trying to get across instead he listens to him and see what he has got to say. Walter now starts to tell Mr Lindner how his father almost beat a man to death once because this man called him a bad name or something. Walter asks Mr Lindner if he knows what he is talking about, he replies no, Im afraid I dont this makes Walter feel as if he is the only one that understands what it feels like so he gains confidence in himself and straightens up. Walter tries to get another point across by saying that he came from people who had a lot of pride and now they dont have the same pride. Walter tries to make out that they are still very proud and how his sister is going to be a doctor. Walter contradicts himself as in the beginning when he was arguing with Beneatha he mentioned that being a doctor is more of a males role and she wouldnt be able to become one. Walter now starts to cry while facing Mr Lindner eye to eye this makes Walter feel bad about what he has done with the money. Walter now decided to tell Mr Lindner that they are moving into the house because his father had earned it. This shows that Walter has recognised his responsibility and best interest for his family at heart. Walters character has evolved from a young child into manhood making him a hero of the family. Walter now has all the confidence to look Mr Lindner absolutely in the eyes and tell him we dont want your money. Walter finishes with a very definite statement. Doing this makes Mr Lindner feel as he is an obstruction and so should leave. The family are all excited about the wise decision Walter has made. The audience feel that in the beginning of the play Walter is selfish and money hungry because he doesnt listen to any member of his family and only thinks about trying to get rich quickly. In the end Walter had realised what a fool he had been after losing the money his mother had trusted him with. Now he should listen to his families needs and do what he thinks is right. By making the wise decision of moving into the house he makes the audience feel as if he has become a true man and a hero to his family. Walter is virtually a new person now which people like more than what he was before. The character of Mr. Lindner makes the theme of racial discrimination prominent in the plot as an issue that the Youngers cannot avoid. The governing body of the Youngers new neighbourhood, the Clybourne Park Improvement Association, sends Mr. Lindner to persuade them not to move into the all-white neighbourhood. Mr. Lindner and the people he represents can only see the colour of the Younger familys skin, and his offer to bribe the Youngers to keep them from moving threatens to tear apart the Younger family and the values for which it stands. Ultimately, the Youngers respond to this discrimination with defiance and strength. The play powerfully demonstrates that the way to deal with discrimination is to stand up to it and reassert ones dignity in the face of it rather than allow it to pass unchecked. In my opinion I think Walter is like any other American- African in that time. He believes that money is the only thing he needs to solve all his problems but little does he know that he needs to listen to his family and not just himself. I also think that all the male roles such as Willy and his friends are bad influences on Walter as they persuaded him to give them his money which they ran off with. However the female roles such as mama and Ruth were a good influence as they all stuck together even when Walter was against them and helped Walter to see what he is throwing away. Lorraine Hansberry is trying to say that Black people in the 1950s experienced a life of discrimination in one way or another. They got here today by having defiance and strength in themselves. Even though they were not treated as equals by some white people, however they made a stand which gave them dignity and the power to be treated as equals. Though black people try to fit into a white neighbourhood they should still remember their roots and how they got here.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Standard And Non Standard Dialect English Language Essay

Standard And Non Standard Dialect English Language Essay INTRODUCTION Linguists would define language as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication which may consist of several dialects. Here, dialect is a variety of a certain language, spoken in one part of a country (regional dialect), whose difference can be encountered in some words, and/or pronunciation from other forms of the same language. Dialects and their uniqueness in the application have been the sole point of discussion in sociolinguistics, attracting many linguists to learn about them deeply. Indonesia, as the parameter in this paper, consists of many ethnics and cultures with their own unique languages, thus it is likely that Indonesia possesses many local languages. Nonetheless, Bahasa Indonesia is claimed to be a national language that is expected to be a means to unite all citizens despite their different cultural background. In this case, although each region has its own local language, which is distinct and not just a dialect, virtually everyone now speaks Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Language). In order to unify such a diverse nation, a common language is clearly needed. The phenomenon of dialects along with its variants is the main concern in this paper. THEORITICAL VIEW According to Francis (1992) and Romaine (1994) dialects are the variants or varieties of a language used by different speakers who are separated by geographic or social boundaries. Furthermore, Einer Haugen, as quoted in Hudson (1996) states that English made no distinction between language and dialect, but when the Renaissance period, the term dialect was borrowed from Greek, and it refers to the distinct varieties used in classical Greek in relation to different area and kind of literature. If we look further into a smaller scope of language in Indonesia, every local language will have its own regional dialects. Even within a geographical area which is not very wide, still there is probability that a local language varies. As a consequence, each regional dialect will also have their standard dialect used by the members of that particular regional area. Furthermore, Chambers and Trudgill (1998), quoted in Hudson (2000) stated that a dialect is popularly considered to be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a sub-standard, low status, often rustic form of a language, lacking in prestige.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Meanwhile standard dialect is used within the area and might not be understood by people coming from outside of the area. A standard language (also standard dialect, standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that is considered to be prestigious within a speech community. The standard will usually be institutionalized, often by being given legal status, and then used as the norm in mass media, education, and other social institutions. DISCUSSION The explanation above grants us view that standard dialect is different with non-standard dialect which is called regional dialect. We can see the differences between them in terms of their function as well as the area where they are applied. Related with its function, standard dialect will be used universally and usually known by the whole user of the regional dialects of the same language. In regard to the area, the standard dialect is known and widely used by every person in a particularly wide area where that language being used meanwhile the non-standard dialects or regional dialects is the dialect that is used in a relatively smaller area. Here, commonly, local language shows from which province/area we come from and regional dialects shows from which area in certain province we come from. It means that standard dialect has a wider range than non-standard dialects. As one of the local language in Indonesia, Balinese language can be a good example in describing the varieties of dialects in certain area in Indonesia. Balinese language is the official language for Balinese community which is used at any formal situation in the Balinese society such as community meeting, wedding ceremony, priest speech at the temple etc. There are some dialects of Balinese language in Bali, usually based on the regency where it is spoken, so commonly there is Gianyar dialect, Bangli dialect, Tabanan dialect, Negara dialect and so on. However, no matter what dialect it is, the language,in this case Balinese Language basically is the same both in terms of grammar and syntax. They are just slightly different in the tone/rhythm, pronunciation, and few vocabularies. Most importantly, Balinese people speaking different dialects can still understand each other at the very least. Compared some Balinese words such as : Tuba = poison, Bubu = basket fish trap, Pedau = boat, Layar = sail, Talas = Taro, Ubi = Yam, Tebu = sugar cane, Nyuh = coconut, Lemo = citrus, Pandan = pandanus, Buah = areca. Among those smaller groups of languages further variations or dialect can be still found especially the level of morphemic construction and phonemes. It is interesting to find that beside various dialects that exist in Balinese language, there is also the difference in intonation. The group of intonation does not necessarily bring into one as a unit of dialect. In the future with the presence of modern communication means as an interface of human being, this intonation and dialects will move toward homogenous elements. So, the dialects among Balinese people are mostly similar in grammatical aspect but are different in term of intonation, vocabularies and accent. The nature of the existence of cultural dialect is not aimed to give limitation to the freedom of expression, apparently it is to give view that expressions may differ across cultural groups. The standardized expressions served as a control for the perceiver effects discussed above such as greater motivation or preference for oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s own perceived ethnic group, stereotypes about the likely emotions experienced by different groups, and decoding rules which should all be equal when judging these two sets of expressions. For these reasons, we argue that regional dialects may vary in their impact across emotions. However, although there are several aspects that differentiate those regional dialects in certain local language, we cannot absolutely determine exactly which dialect belong to certain area, or which vocabularies or intonation belong to certain dialect, etc. The line between them is not clear and the most critical standards of differentiating them rely on the social facts as well as the linguistic facts itself. As what is explained above, sometimes when the people with different dialect (although with the same standard language) meet each other, they can feel strange, funny or the worst they cannot understand the meaning of certain statement used by their partner. This is how dialects are being evaluated within the social community. There is no such term better or best dialect, there is only the feeling of being accustomed and not accustomed to a certain dialcet. For example, Balinese language. When Tabanan people with Tabanan dialect talk each other, they can understand each other and the conversation goes well as usual. But when Tabanan people meet Singaraja people that also have their own dialect, there will be something unusual. Tabanan people may feel strange or even funny because the different with their own dialect, but the same thing will happen with Singaraja people, too. So, these dialects which are different from one area to another area in Bali, can be such a characteristic of t hat area that can help the people from another area identify where they come from. The point here is that every people have to respect each other in terms of dialect use. They can have different dialect but, to make the conversation safe, they can use the standard dialect. So, everything about dialect itself is evaluated by the community in which, there is no absolute decision about this evaluation because everyone can have their own evaluation about these dialects. The people who use dialect itself are the social community where that dialect exists. As a matter of fact, any dialect will not last unless the community uses it. Here, the language will be formed based on the culture in that area and becomes tradition from one generation to the next. These dialects usually can be learnt by the community through the daily conversation. For those, who become native speaker of that dialect, it can be formed and acquired naturally because their environment. Furthermore, for those who are not native speakers of that dialect, this dialect also can be learnt through a frequent use of dialect itself. For example the one who firstly used Gianyar dialect, but because he/she lives in Singaraja for a long time and usually make interactions and conversations with Singarajaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s people, he/she can use Singaraja dialect also. He/she will automatically follow the dominating dialect because that is the dialect in his/her new environment. CONCLUSION In conclusion, language as a means of communication might be found varied. The variation is known as dialects, whose differences comprise intonation, pronunciation, as well as vocabulary. The dialects within the society exist in two forms namely the standard and non standard dialect. Both of the variants share one thing in common, that is they are of the same language. However, the differences between them are that standardized dialect is considered to be more prestigious, and is applied in wider area compared with the non standard dialect. Dialects are acquired through the daily conversation, through other people who are involved in a talk. Thus, any dialect that has ever been created should be kept in use in order for the dialect itself not to be perished.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Organizational Structure Of Management Levels Information Technology Essay

The Organizational Structure Of Management Levels Information Technology Essay This chapter contains a discription of the various methods to be used to gather information from the client and customer in other to meet up to the requirement provided when developing the system for the client and others problems assoiciated with the current system. On the completion of this chapter, various requirement will be gathered and analysed and based on these requirement, the system will be developed. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF WELLCARE SHOPPING MALL The mall management is a hierarchal top-to-bottom clear cut system that has clearly defined boundaries. The shopping management follows the standard four-level management levels (Top, Middle, Low and Operational Management Levels). The system is described in full below. TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT: This level of management, being the pinnacle in every organization is made up of CEO, and Managing Directors Board Meetings are held monthly and the malls monthly profit rankings are discussed among other issues pertaining to the store. At the Board meetings, long range plans for the store are drawn up, and are then broadcast into the store by the Managers then to other departments in the store. MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT: The Managers of the mall has people under him (he represents the Board of Trustees at the store) who implement the long range plans that the Board has set out to achieve for the store. By breaking up the plans into more realistic year or monthly plans, and dividing the objectives among the departments, the managers also at this level oversees the affairs of the mall. Listed here are the Middle Level Management level personnel at the store: Human Resource Manager, Facilities Manager, Store Manager, Purchase Manager, Sales Manager, Finance Manager, and Front Office Manager. LOW LEVEL MANAGEMENT : For the smooth day-to-day running of the hotel, the managers of each department put in place supervisors, team leaders, group leaders to watch and oversee the actions being carried out daily by the operational level staff. Some of the personnel at this level actually work along with the operational level, but cannot be classified with the operational level because of their level of information and access. OPERATIONAL LEVEL MANAGEMENT: The personnel at this level are the staffs responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the hotels objectives. Sales personnel, cleaners, Store clerks, Drivers, Sales marketer, Security officers, and Store clerks all fall under this category. An organizational chart showing the various levels of management at the mall is shown on the next page. FACT-FINDING TECHNIQUES The listings of fact-finding techniques are as follows: Interviews: Of all the techniques employed this is considered the most effective for obtaining information due to its flexible nature as interviewees are able to give proper clarification where such is required and more detail is easily obtainable using this method. Therefore in order to gain a wholesome grasp on the working of the current system certain staff and customers of the store were selected since the customers are the ones to be affected by the project it was necessary to obtain their opinions. Interviews allow us to study the reactions of the interviewees and judge if their responses are unbiased and knowledgeable. Much relevant information was obtained from the interviews conducted with the staff of the store. However this process was carried out over the internet as arranged by the client. Questionnaires: The purpose of distributing questionnaires is to obtain a broader scope of the operations of a store from the views of both the staff and customers of the store. Due to the fact that the staff of the store are numerous it is cumbersome to attempt to interview all of them but it is necessary to ensure that a good number of staff participate in the exercise. It is also not possible to interview all the customers of the store but it is necessary to obtain a broad base of input from the customer because they are the ones to utilize the software which will be designed. Due to these constraints the only technique available is to fill the stated requirements by distributing questionnaires to the various respondents. Since most of the questions in the questionnaires have a restricted set of answers the information obtained using this method is generally more precise. Observation: The purpose of observing at first hand the shopping operations of the store is to get as much personalized information as possible by discovering what is actually happening as opposed to what is supposed to happen. In conducting interviews and surveys it is possible that respondents might not be entirely forthcoming with the true answers but by observing what is actually going on, direct fact will be gathered from the shopping process. INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE DETAILED RESULT DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT SYSTEM HOW THE CURRENT SYSTEM WORKS Based on the facts gathered from our facts finding process, the current manual based shopping system being operated by wellcare shopping mall Abuja can be summarized as follows: There are two main purpose why customers comes into the store that come; the first type of customers are those who want to find information about a product, while the second type of customers are those that want to purchase a product. The current system does have arrangements for both types of customers. MAKING AN ENQUIRY FOR A PRODUCT When customers walks into the store and want to make enquiry about a particular product, the customer then walk up to the shopping attendants to make enquiries. If the enquire is something that can be immediately treated (e.g. the description of a particular product), the shopping clerk can handle on the spot without consulting her subordinates or superiors. If however the customer wants to find out things that exceed the jurisdiction of the clerk, it is mandated for her to refer the customer to the front office manager who then handles the case, and since this also exceeds the boundaries of the shopping system. PURCHASING A PRODUCT Customer who purchase a product in wellcare shopping mall are put through five (3) process that make up the current shopping system. The first process involves customer searching for a products and adding searched products to the shopping basket. These can only be done by searching for products based on product categories in the store. The second process involves the customer paying for the product and specifying the means of payment. Two main modes are encouraged. These means are: payment by cash and payment by cheques. The third process is simply printing out the shopping receipt for the customer. The shopping receipt will contain fields which include Product Number, Product Name, quantity, amount paid and method of payment. The customer checks in the next day if the payment mode is cash, or two days after if the payment mode is by cheque. Based on these facts gathered from our facts finding process, the current manual based shopping system being operated by the wellcare shopping mall in Abuja can be somewhat summarized and represented in a process modeling diagram to illustrate or show how the current system works. PROCESS MODELING Description of the current system using Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Below is a Data Flow Diagram that shows the physical information flow within the current system at the context level. The basic organization structure is decentralized control. By referring to the Context Diagram (see Figure 1), we can see the current system is constituted of the main SHOPPING SYSTEM interacting with three entities; Customer, Bank and the Store Information System. Entity Description Customer The customer is every person that comes to the shop regarding shopping and product enquiry. Whether it is to make enquires, or to buy a product, or to pay for a product. Mall Information System This Refers to the front desk and customer services section of the store. Information regarding the store is kept in store information system. Bank When customers opt to pay by cheque, the store sends the cheque details to the bank for verification and the cash is then sent back to the store database. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERAL SYSTEM PROCESSES From the Context Diagrams, we can see that the current shopping system has 3 main entity: Customer Bank Shopping information system and below is an ER (Entity Relation Diagram for the current shopping system). PROBLEMS OF THE CURRENT HOTEL RESERVATION SYSTEM IT IS TIME CONSUMING With the current shopping system a lot of time is required to go through the shopping process even for regular shopping customers. It takes customer time to search for product category by category especially if the customer. IT IS TEDIOUS In the current system is very tedious and stressful for both the sales representatives and customer because of the queues often encountered in trying to pay for a product in the mall. The morale of the front office staff is usually reduced after a full days work as they are likely to feel fatigued. IT IS NOT AUTOMATED The current system requires constant supervision and personnel presence to run effectively. The absence of this (supervision) hinders the system and wades off prospective customers as well as taints the reputation of the store. However, the problem involved here is that more attention is given to the shopping process and other areas are neglected because the staff required to manage them are supervising others. THE CUSTOMER HAS LIMITED OPTIONS Here the customers does not get adequate information regarding different product and other important information, as a result these the store might loose their prospective customers. UNRELIABLE The current system has many flaws in its implementation. Flaws such as over out of stock of products, number of product supplied, poor defined specifications, poor documentation. Most of these are caused by the human factors that implement the system. TAKES UP SPACE Data is usually stored in hard copies( in filing cabinets) thus requiring valuable office space:- Since the current system makes use of office files and filing cabinet to store records of product, suppliers and staff, a lot of space is required to accommodate large volume of these records. DATA INSECURITY With the current system, records and other important information are prone to theft, unauthorized manipulation and lose due to fire. These files can even be easily accessed by unauthorized people. IT IS COST INTENSIVE The current system requires lots of funds to maintain its smooth operation due to the purchase of paper, stationeries, filing cabinets, phone bills, e.t.c LIMITED CONTROL OVER PURCHASED ITEMS The current system makes it difficult/tedious for the customers to have control over purchased product for example returning and asking for refunds for an already purchased product. SOLUTION TO PROBLEMS OF CURRENT SYSTEM RE: IT IS TIME CONSUMING The proposed system aims to achieve a record time of 3-6 minutes for registered customers and 6-10 minutes for new customers depending on the customer shopping items. Also, with the customer account module running, the customer need not submit his details every time, he just supplies his user ID and his details are automatically uploaded. RE: IT IS TEDIOUS Since the number of customers to come to the sales would reduce, front office staff fatigue is less likely to occur, and as a result, the morale towards work of the staff would increase. Also, the customers would not have to go through the burden of queuing to lodge. RE: IT IS NOT AUTOMATED The proposed system would be developed in simple everyday language, thus making it simple for any body that can read and use a computer to book a room online. Also, staff supervision is not required for the receptionists and other front office staff, this is because the customer details are simply uploaded to the computer in the hotel, and can be opened by a simple mouse click. RE: THE CUSTOMER HAS LIMITED OPTIONS The new system would not only have information concerning the new system, it would make it possible for the customers to ask questions online and have their answers mailed to them. Thus making the enquiry process easy and increasing customer satisfaction. RE: UNRELIABLE The new system is computer based and thus the issue of human factor does not come up. The computer works with the principle GIGO (Garbage-In-Garbage-Out) which means the computer only supplies what the user had given before. RE: TAKES UP SPACE Since the new system is computer based, space requirement would be a very trivial issue because files would be stored in your computer hard disk. This means there is no need to have physical storage locations. RE: DATA INSECURITY In the proposed system, data security is very important as access specifiers would be made available at virtually every level of information. RE: IT IS COST INTENSIVE Since the system is computer based, the only form of paperwork needed would be printing sales report at the end of every month, which is normal and nothing compared to the tedious paper work which currently is being used. The computerization thereby means that the hotel would no longer have to budget so much money for provision of stationary anymore. RE: LIMITED CONTROL OVER RESERVATION The proposed system provides the customers the flexibility to control their reservations. Customers can modify their reservation at any point before the check in time. They can even cancel reservations without loosing their money as opposed to the current system where the customer looses 50% if he/she does not lodge.

Monday, August 19, 2019

international trade Essay -- essays research papers

Privatization of social security Today, United State is on the edge for a huge change, President George W. Bush second term agenda to reform the Social Security has left us to think about a question that will have a huge impact on the future of United State, Should Social Security be privatized? Enacted in 1935, under the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and modified many times since-including major change in 1983-Social Security provides benefits to workers and their family members upon retirement, disability, or death. Since the program's origin, the size of those benefits always has depended on the earnings of workers. If the social security is privatized the amount that’s collected from each worker’s pay check as a Social Security tax upon retirement instead would depend on the size of investments in his or her own personal account. Under the current recession period, privatizing Social Security will increase the federal deficits and debt significantly hence the national savings will decline and of all it could reduce long-term economic growth and the size of the economic pie available to pay for the retirement of the baby boom generation. After privatization for every dollar of national savings that it injects into the economy, the government will have to take another dollar out of the national savings market in the form of Treasury Bonds, thus negating the effect of privatization on the supply of private capital. Therefore interest rates are likely to...

Essay on Justice vs. Morality in Measure for Measure and Merchant of Ve

Justice vs. Morality in Measure for Measure and Merchant of Venice    There are many similarities shared between Shakespeare's plays, "Measure for Measure", and "The Merchant of Venice".   The underlying theme of each work is well defined by the phrase "Justice without the temperance of mercy, is power misused".   I will support this claim by drawing upon some of the characters and situations that are consistent in each story. In each story a man's life depends on the interpretation, and sanctioning of justice.   In the, "Merchant of Venice", Antonio (who I believe represents mercy), had sealed a bond with Shylock offering a pound of his flesh for the loan of three thousand ducats.   Unfortunately he forfeits this bond, (Merchant III,ii) "Sweet Bassanio, my ships have all miscarried.... my bond to the Jew is forfeit....".   Shylock (who to the strict letter of the law represents justice), is unyielding to any type of compassion and desires nothing other than what he feels is justice, (Merchant III,iii) "I'll have my bond... beware my fangs. The Duke shall grant me justice...".   In, "Measure for Measure", it is Cladio (representing mercy), whose life hangs in the balance of law and morality.   Cladio has slept with Julietta out of wedlock, (Measure I,ii) "I got possession of Julietta's bed... she is fast my wife... Save that we do the denunciation lack...".   For this crime Angelo (who in place of the duke, representing justice), much as Shylock, desires that Cladio's sentence be carried out exactly as stated by the law, (Measure II,i) "  Ã‚   'Tis one thing to be tempted, Escalus Another thing to fall... Sir, he must die". In both cases the guilty parties have committed a crime punishable by death, additionally each man also r... ... of the law, and by not yielding to human decency and compassion, Shylock would have been   given his just deserts.   The same was true for Angelo who desired Cladio's head as the unaltered law required.   It certainly seems to me, that Mr.. Shakespeare was simply stating that in within the realms of these plays' one could easily say that "Justice without the temperance of mercy, is power misused". Works Cited Black, James. "The Unfolding of Measure for Measure." Shakespeare Survey 26 (1973): 119-28. Leech, Clifford. "The 'Meaning' of Measure for Measure." Shakespeare Survey 3 (1950): 69-71. Shakespeare, William. Measure for Measure. The Arden Shakespeare. Ed. J.W. Lever. London: Routledge, 1995. Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice. The Riverside Shakespeare. Eds. G. Blakemore Evans and J. J. M. Tobin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

4th new member discussion :: essays research papers

Brothers & Sisters we are privileged to be living in the most glorious of times, A time when all the generations of mankind come together. A time just before our Savior appears for his millennial reign. Think about that for a moment. Last General Conference in April our beloved Prophet spoke on this subject and reiterated the fact that these are perilous times. We know this to be true. Dallin H. Oaks spoke on the signs of the times & our need to prepare for his 2nd coming. He told us there are 4 matters indisputable to Latter-day Saints. 1. The Savior will return to the earth in power and great glory to reign personally during the millennium. 2 At the time of his coming there will be great destruction, a destruction of the wicked and a resurrection of the righteous. 3. No one knows the time of his coming, but , 4 the faithful are taught to study the signs and to be prepared for it. He focused primarily on the 4th with our need for spiritual preparation. He began the 4th topic with Alma 34:32 â€Å"this life is the time for men to prepare to meet God†¦.the day of this life is the day for men to perform their labors† and he asked â€Å"Are we preparing?† Imagine that you are living just below a large dam. One day you notice a crack in the dam. What would you do. Would you call someone to repair the crack or see what could be done to repair it? Later you see water leaking thru this crack and you realize that the dam soon will break. Would you mention casually to your family and friends that a problem exists or is developing? Or would you urgently do everything possible to warn others to escape the danger? We should have much the same concern about sharing the saving truths of the gospel with those who have not yet heard them. We know the dam is about to break but do we see or feel the urgency D&C 88:81 â€Å"It becometh every man who hath been warned to warn his neighbor.† When we accept the gospel of Jesus Christ and are baptized into his church we accept the responsibility of sharing it with others, particularly relatives and friends. Great blessings are promised the House of Israel. Some of us may not even comprehend these

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Prison Gangs Essay

United States of America, what a beautiful place to live where great opportunities lie ahead of you and the American dream is right around the corner. Although United States of America is one of the most valued countries in the world with booming economy and intelligence, we face problems of our own such as homicides, terrorism, immigration, politics and etc. One of the biggest problems that we face today is prison gangs. It is very important to know and to learn about prison gangs because prison gangs will gain a stronger hold in communities if communities do not structure intervention to include more than law enforcement suppression. If that happens, street gangs may become better structured and drug gangs may become more powerful forces in the community (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). The purpose of this research paper is to knowledge the reader about the importance of prison gangs, overview of their organization & activities and finally contributes solutions to rising problem. We often question ourselves, what is a prison gang? And how do they differ from the street gangs? Lyman (1989) defines that, prison gang is an organization which operates within the prison system as a self-perpetuating criminally oriented entity, consisting of a select group of inmates who have established an organized chain of commands and are governed by an established code of conduct. Street level gangs honor and respect highly of the prison gang members and wishes to become a member of a prison gang one day. Prison gangs influences and carries a great power over the street level gangs. Prison gangs are also known as the â€Å"bad of the bad† to the street level gang members. The almighty, organized and professional prison gangs reign over the street gangs and on our society today and it is becoming a devastating problem. It has been estimated that, there are two million men and women serving prison terms in America (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). That is more than eighty percent of the population in city of Los Angeles. Criminologists argue that the criminals often do not have the power to control the destructive forces in their environment, which created their disabilities. Which defines that many criminals are victims of family abuse and neglect, school disciplinary practices that expelled them before they had sufficient education to pursue a career, and impoverished neighborhoods well outside the opportunity networks in the dominant community (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). It is depressing to admit the fact that the community and their families may have created these law breakers, but however, few members of the prisoners became high risk organizations in our society and has become one of the biggest problems today. Although the researchers have stated that â€Å"it was very difficult to obtain the data on the number of prison gangs and information about the prison gang,† through persistent and careful observation, a core-important information of the biggest prison gangs were able to be gathered. The prison inmates form groups and organizations based on their need for identity, belongings, personal interests and race. Fleisher and Decker (2001) stated that the first known American prison gang was the Gypsy Jokers formed in the 1950s in Washington state prisons and the first prison gang with nationwide ties was the Mexican Mafia in 1957. The Mexican Mafia prison gang started at the Deuel Vocational Center in Tracy, California and it was California’s first prison gang. The Mexican Mafia also known as the â€Å"La Eme,† was originally found by 13 inmates who were active Latino street gang members previously from different neighborhoods in the Los Angeles Area. The Mexican Mafia was born in order to protect themselves from other gang members, hostile inmates and prison staffs (Valdez, 2009). The Mexican Mafia gang eventually grew to be one of the biggest prison gang organization and focuses on criminal activities including drug trafficking and wars with other prison gangs. In order to become a member of the Mexican Mafia prison gang, one must have a sponsoring member and undergo a blood oath to prove his loyalty to the gang. The members of the Mexican Mafia frequently had tattoos on their right hands with the word â€Å"Eme,† and an eagle holding a snake in its mouth, symbolizing their organization. The Aryan Brotherhood of the Texas was the white supremacist group in California. These prison gang members opposed racial threat of African Americans and Hispanic inmates and countered the organization and activities of the Black and Hispanic gangs. The Aryan Brotherhood simply neglected Black and Hispanic inmates, desired the power to rule the prison system and was involved in drug trafficking. In order to join the Aryan Brotherhood, one must commit â€Å"making one’s bones,† requiring taking a life of someone. The Aryan Brotherhood followed one simple rule, â€Å"Blood in, blood out,† defining that the only non-violent out of the organization is by natural death. The Aryan Brotherhood gang members often had tattoos of a cloverleaf, swastika, lightning bolts and/or the letters â€Å"AB† on their bodies. The Black Guerilla Family became one of the most politically charged revolutionary gangs in history. The Black Guerilla Family is an organized prison gang established by George Lester Jackson, a leader of Black Panther who united with the Black Liberation Army (BLA), Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), and the Weatherman Underground Organization to create a powerful organization of the history. The Black Guerilla were feared by many of the prison guards due to their demonic presence and continued to remain in control until today. Tattoos such as the â€Å"prison watchtower surrounded by a dragon with a quarter moon depicted in its body,† and â€Å"silhouette of a rifle with a sword lying over it to form an X,† symbolized The Black Guerilla Family. The famous, almighty and traditional Los Angeles street gangs, also known as the Crips and Bloods are also found in prison systems today. Valdez (2009) examines that the two gangs, Crips and Bloods may war with each other while on the street, but however, there seems to be a truce and alliance between these groups inside the prison system and the probable reason for that is for their protection from the existing prison gangs. As these members in prison joined together, they insured protection and guide amongst themselves. In West Coast prisons, the Crips formed the consolidated Crip organization and the Bloods found the United Blood nation (Valdez, 2009). As most of criminologists already know that the prison gangs dominate the drug business and drug trafficking, many researchers have argued that the most prison violence are due to the prison gangs. Motivated by a desire to make money and be at the top of an institution’s inmate power structure, prison gangs exploit the inherent weakness resulting from overcrowded, understaffed mega-prisons such as correctional staffer’s inability to watch these activities of the inmates every moment of each day, every moment of each hours to month after month (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Although I have not mentioned many other prison gangs and organizations, prison gangs continue to increase in numbers and it is continuing to become a big problem in our society. After all, prisons are institutions supported by millions of taxes in order to rehabilitate these criminals into a better person and keep them out of trouble, but unfortunately, prison system is where many street gang members learn the secrets of becoming highly professional criminals. Fleisher and Decker (2001) states that collaboration between correctional agencies and university researchers is a key to creating strong solutions to the difficult, persistent problem posed by prison gangs. Further researches and studies in this subject are required and solution to the problem must be operationalized immediately to prevent prison gangs from gaining stronger hold in communities, become better structured, and become much more powerful forces in the community. As we all dream and hope to increase the quality of our lives, dangerous issues and problems must be solved in order to fully achieve peace in our communities.

Friday, August 16, 2019

The War of Americans

Over the course of the last half-century the U. S. has enjoyed unprecedented power in every aspect whether it be politically, economically, militarily, or by any other means. In its dominance of world politics since WWII, the U. S. has been able to cast its influence around the globe. However, the U. S. experienced a gradual decline in its sovereignty over the course of this era as well. A prime example was in 1973 when OPEC raised oil prices drastically over the course of the next two years. â€Å"OPEC†s ability to increase at will the world price of its precious product highlighted the industrial world†s dependence on foreign sources of energy. (Keylor, p. 346) Being a sovereign nation requires not being subject to external forces, being able to conduct an independent foreign policy, and being able to control events within your own borders. Today, U. S. sovereignty continues to decline for a number of reasons. The only question is whether it is healthy or harmful for the U. S. to do so. The first reason why U. S. sovereignty is declining is due to what is known as interdependence. This phenomenon developed after WWII with the creation of the UN, GATT, the IMF and other such intergovernmental organizations. All of these served to create linkages between the major nations of the world in the postwar era. Membership in such organizations makes the U. S. subject to international law. Rosecrance†s identification of the trading state signifies the shift away from geopolitical influence and towards a global economy. Both the roles of international trade and foreign investment have increasingly become a greater element of U. S. economic importance. Additionally, the tying together of economies from around the world has lead to an increase in economic warfare. The increased use of economic sanctions and other such measures can be contributed to their perceived effectiveness in obtaining foreign policy goals. The U. S. integration into the world economy leaves it susceptible to the economic decisions of its trading partners and providers of raw materials. Reliance on import and export goods is an essential part of the U. S. economy. This can be seen in every day life. Just think about how much gas prices have increased recently as the result of a few nations restricting their oil supplies in order to raise prices. While the countries responsible for this could all be readily defeated by the U. S. in war, the U. S. is powerless to combat their practices. Aside from its place in the world market, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction also serves to limit the sovereignty of the U. S. First off, new nuclear powers, which would likely include a number of aggressive authoritarian states, will lack the resources to manage the elaborate command and control capabilities required. â€Å"Even if hostile countries somehow catch up in an arms race, their military organizations and cultures are unlikely to catch up in the competence race for management, technology assimilation, and combat command skills. (Betts, p. 29) In addition to proliferation of nuclear weapons, there is also wide concern among U. S. leaders about the spread and development of biological weapons. The rise of religious nationalism and anti-U. S. sentiments in nations such as Iraq give cause for concern to the U. S. that an attack using biological weapons is possible. â€Å"One simple fact should worry Americans more about biological than about nuclear or chemical arms: unlike either of the other two, biological weapons combine maximum destructiveness and easy availability. † (Betts, p. 32) Even more threatening to U. S. sovereignty is the treat of terrorist attack to our nation†s soil. The proliferation of the aforementioned weapons is worrisome to U. S. officials that a horrendous nuclear of biological terrorist attack is feasible. The possibility of such and attack places a serious hindrance on the U. S. ability to protect its citizens within its borders. Conspirators of such an attack could be based within the U. S. or abroad, which makes it increasingly difficult to guard against. Additionally, it is impossible to deter such a course of action. When a nation is attacked, the government behind the attack is readily identified and a counterattack can be undertaken. However, when it is unknown as to who is behind the attack, it makes it impossible to deter it from occurring since â€Å"retaliation requires knowledge of who has launched an attack and the address at which they reside. † (Betts, p. 34) Such concerns have increased since the end of the Cold War as there is widespread doubt surrounding the degree of control Russia used in disposing of their nuclear weapons. The information revolution also poses a serious threat to U. S. overeignty. The increasing opportunities for interaction through technological advances in communications and transportation make information more readily accessible. The strong reliance on the behalf of the U. S. on information infrastructure makes it vulnerable to attack. (Wriston, p. 179) â€Å"The smallest nation, terrorist group, or drug cartel could hire a computer programmer to plant a Trojan horse virus in software, take down a vital network, or cause a missile to misfire†¦ The United States† increasing reliance on massive networks may make it more, not less vulnerable. † (Wriston, p. 80) As with the problem of an armed terrorist attack, it is extremely difficult to determine who is responsible for a break-in of a private, supposedly secure, U. S. government web page. Fortunately, we have not yet witnessed any such form of information warfare; however, imagining the form it might take and protecting against it has become the preoccupation of a presidential commission and numerous task forces. (Wriston, p. 179) Despite the erosion of U. S. sovereignty, it is still by far the most powerful nation in the world today. I for one would welcome the erosion of U. S. overeignty since it furthers interdependence in world politics and serves to perpetuate world peace. The greater the economies of the world are intertwined, the less likely it is that a nation will go to war with another that it is linked to by a web of transnational relationships. It may also be in the best interests of the U. S. to lose some of its sovereignty since the world is moving towards civilizational entities (Western, African, Islamic, etc. ) as identified by Samuel Huntington. (Huntington) If he is correct in his prediction, then the U. S. is better off belonging to one of these civilizations rather than standing alone.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Developmental psychology Essay

I have identified a number of themes from both interviews which relate to Jo and Tony’s childhood and life experiences and how these have influenced their development and how their children’s lives have differed from their own. Â  Educational influence Educational issues appear to have influenced both Tony and Jo Tony refers to himself as being uneducated: And then I only went to school for a year, after I was eleven. Tony ex plains this was due to the years education he did receive: I had a very interesting year the year’s education I had was very interesting situation in at a boarding school in Sussex. Where I was I learned a great deal actually. Lines 34-36 He says that other influences had contributed to his education: strange influences, and yes I suppose I am self-educated I’ve read an awful lot obviously Lines 40 – 41 Jo describes her education as being different I went to school in Leeds ’til I was eight and then I was evacuated. Lines 44 – 45 I then went to boarding school for the next ten years Lines 46 -47 * Parental influence There are several references to Jo and Tony’s views on the important role of parenting, for them this had been through their parent’s work and religious beliefs: Tony: Victorian Work Ethic in Line 54 Tony and Jo agree that religion was a very big influence from their parents Tony Lines 63 – 67: Jo’s mother was brought up as a Methodist and my father was as well. And I think Methodist principles were fairly firmly entrenched. And Yes I think that has, that makes us to a certain extent the sort of people we are. In lines 81 – 82 Tony talks about which career paths were available to them and one’s parent’s experiences and aspirations certainly entered into it as well In the second interview both Tony and Jo make reference to separation from their fathers because of the war, this appears to be a shared experience for both of them. Jo then compares this with their own children’s experience of separation, their children feared that Tony and Jo would separate like another family that they knew. Jo says that when the children are young it is important to make sacrifices or you adapt Line 122 Interests could be pursued later. She emphasizes this further if you want to nurture and encourage your children, then some one or other had got to stay, perhaps hold back a little to give as much as you can to your children Lines 145 – 148. Although Jo acknowledges that women have equal rights today in contrast with the past, she believes that in order to provide a nurturing role women should still put their children first. She also talks about the importance of stability for children children like stability. And it’s the stable base that you make around them that matters more Lines 154 -156 * Social/cultural/historical influence Historical influence has played a part in Jo and Tony’s development, the war had a huge impact on them, their fathers went away and there was uncertainty as to whether they would return. The educational opportunities available differed between them, Jo went to school and boarding school but Tony only had one year of education and apart from this was self taught.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Program Evaluation as a Key Tool in Health and Human Services

Program Evaluation as a Key Tool in Health and Human Services Maria Delos Angeles Mora HCA460 Research Methods in Health and Human Services Professor TyKeysha Boone April 22, 2013 Program Evaluation as a Key Tool in Health and Human Services In this competitive health care environment, consumers want and expect better health care services and hospital systems are concerned about maintaining their overall image. There is also attention to ways in which patient satisfaction measurement can be integrated into an overall measure of clinical quality. As lots of information is available to be used in a hypothetical evaluation.The American Red Cross is my selection due to that I worked with them for several years as a voluntary and telephonic representative to answer incoming calls that needed to be checked for different parts of the United States and commonwealth territories. The fundamental Principles of the Global Red Cross Network are based on humanity- the Red Cross, born of a desire t o bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the battlefield, endeavors-in its international and national capacity-to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found.Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, and cooperation lasting peace amongst all peoples, impartiality-it makes no discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavors to relieve the suffering of individuals, being guided solely by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress, neutrality- In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all, the Red Cross may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or deological nature, independence-since the Red Cross is considered is independent. The national societies, while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their govern ments and subject to the laws of their respective countries, must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with Red Cross principles, voluntary service-is a voluntary relief movement not prompted in any manner by desire for gain, unity-is there is a Red Cross society in any one country no one can be turned out as it may be open to all.It must carry on its humanitarian work throughout its territory, and universality-as the Red Cross is a worldwide institution in which all societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping each other. In the continuing effort to improve human service programs, funders, policymakers, and service providers are increasingly recognizing the importance of rigorous program evaluations. They want to know what the programs accomplish, what they cost, and how they should be operated to achieve maximum cost-effectiveness.They want to know which programs work for which groups, and t hey want conclusions based on evidence, rather than testimonials and impassioned pleas. This paper lays out, for the non-technician, the basic principles of program evaluation design. It signals common pitfalls, identifies constraints that need to be considered, and presents ideas for solving potential problems. These principles are general and can be applied to a wide range of human service programs.We illustrate these principles here with examples from programs for vulnerable children and youth. Evaluation of these programs is particularly challenging because they address a wide diversity of problems and possible solutions, often include multiple agencies and clients, and change over time to meet shifting service needs. It is very important to follow the steps in selecting the Appropriate Evaluation Design. The first step in the process of selecting an evaluation design is to clarify the questions that need to be answered.The next step is to develop a logic model that lays out the expected causal linkages between the program (and program components) and the program goals. Without tracing these anticipated links it is impossible to interpret the evaluation evidence that is collected. The third step is to review the program to assess its readiness for evaluation. These three steps can be done at the same time or in overlapping stages. Clarifying the Evaluation Questions is a design of any evaluation begins by defining the audience for the evaluation findings, what they need to know, and when.The questions used are determine which of the following four major types of evaluation should be chosen such as: The Impact evaluations focus on questions of causality. Did the program have its intended effects? If so, who was helped and what activities or characteristics of the program created the impact? Did the program have any unintended consequences, positive or negative? How performance monitoring does provides information on key aspects of how a system or program is operating and the extent to which specified program objectives are being attained (e. g. numbers of youth served compared to target goals, reductions in school dropouts compared to target goals). Results are used by service providers, funders, and policymakers to assess the program's performance and accomplishments. Process evaluations answer questions about how the program operates and document the procedures and activities undertaken in service delivery. Such evaluations help identify problems faced in delivering services and strategies for overcoming these problems. They are useful to practitioners and service providers in replicating or adapting program strategies.Cost evaluations address how much the program or program components cost, preferably in relation to alternative uses of the same resources and to the benefits being produced by the program. In the current fiscal environment, programs must expect to defend their costs against alternative uses. As the comprehensive eval uation will include all these activities. Sometimes, however, the questions raised, the target audience for findings, or the available resources limit the evaluation focus to one or two of these activities.Whether to provide preliminary evaluations to staff for use in improving program operations and developing additional services is an issue that needs to be faced. Preliminary results can be effectively used to identify operational problems and develop the capacity of program staff to conduct their own ongoing evaluation and monitoring activities (Connell, J. P. , Kubisch, A. C. , Schorr, L. B. , and Weiss, C. H. (1995). But this use of evaluation findings, called formative evaluations, presents a challenge to evaluators who are faced with the much more ifficult task of estimating the impact of an evolving intervention. When the program itself is continuing to change, measuring impact requires ongoing measurement of the types and level of service provided. The danger in formative e valuations is that the line between program operations and assessment will be blurred. The extra effort and resources required for impact analysis in formative evaluations has to be measured against the potential gains to the program from ongoing improvements and the greater usefulness of the final evaluation findings.Performance monitoring involves identification and collection of specific data on program outputs, outcomes, and accomplishments. Although they may measure subjective factors such as client satisfaction, the data are numeric, consisting of frequency counts, statistical averages, ratios, or percentages. Output measures reflect internal activities: the amount of work done within the program or organization. Outcome measures (immediate and longer term) reflect progress towards program goals. Often the same measurements (e. g. number/percent of youth who stopped or reduced substance abuse) may be used for performance monitoring and impact evaluation. However, unlike impact evaluation, performance monitoring does not make any rigorous effort to determine whether these were caused by program efforts or by other external events. The way that we are looking at Design Variations is when programs are operating in a number of communities, the sites are likely to vary in mission, structure, the nature and extent of project implementation, primary clients/targets, and timeliness.They may offer somewhat different sets of services, or have identified somewhat different goals. In such situations, it is advisable to construct a â€Å"core† set of performance measures to be used by all, and to supplement these with â€Å"local† performance indicators that reflect differences. For example, some youth programs will collect detailed data on youth school performance, including grades, attendance, and disciplinary actions, while others will simply have data on promotion to the next grade or whether the youth is still enrolled or has dropped out.A multi-sc hool performance monitoring system might require data on promotion and enrollment for all schools, and specify more detailed or specialized indicators on attendance or disciplinary actions for one or a subset of schools to use in their own performance monitoring. Another look is at the Considerations/Limitations when selecting performance indicators, evaluators and service providers need it is important to consider: The relevance of potential measures to the mission/objective of the local program or national initiative. The comprehensiveness of the set of measures. The program's control over the factor being measured.The validity of the measure and the reliability and accuracy of the measure, feasibility of collecting the data. How much effort and money is required to generate each measure? Practical Issues. The set of performance indicators should be simple, limited to a few key indicators of priority outcomes. Too many indicators burden the data collection and analysis and make it less likely that managers will understand and use reported information. Regular measurement, ideally quarterly, is important so that the system provides the information in time to make shifts in program operations and to capture changes over time.However, pressures for timely reporting should not be allowed to sacrifice data quality. For the performance monitoring to take place in a reliable and timely way, the evaluation should include adequate support and plans for training and technical assistance for data collection. Routine quality control procedures should be established to check on data entry accuracy and missing information. At the point of analysis, procedures for verifying trends should be in place, particularly if the results are unexpected. The costs of performance monitoring are modest relative to impact evaluations, but still vary widely depending on the data used.Most performance indicator data come from records maintained by service providers. The added expense invo lves regularly collecting and analyzing these records, as well as preparing and disseminating reports to those concerned. This is typically a part-time work assignment for a supervisor within the agency. The expense will be greater if client satisfaction surveys are used to measure outcomes. An outside survey organization may be required for a large-scale survey of past clients; alternatively, a self-administered exit questionnaire can be given to clients at the end of services.In either case, the assistance of professional researchers is needed in preparing data sets, analyses, and reports. Process Analysis key element in process analysis is a systematic, focused plan for collecting data to: (1) determine whatever the program model is being implemented as specified and, if not, how operations differ from those initially planned; (2) identify unintended consequences and unanticipated outcomes; and (3) understand the program from the perspectives of staff, participants, and the commu nity.The design variation is the systemic procedure used to collect data for process evaluation often include case studies, focus groups, and ethnography. As strong pressures demonstrates program impacts dictates making evaluation activities a required and intrinsic part of program activities from the start. At the very least, evaluation activities should include performance monitoring.The collection and analysis of data on program progress and process builds the capacity for self-evaluation and contributes to good program management and efforts to obtain support for program continuation-for example, when the funding is serving as â€Å"seed† money for a program that is intended, if successful, to continue under local sponsorship. Performance monitoring can be extended to non-experimental evaluation with additional analysis of program records and/or client surveys. These evaluation activities may be conducted either by program staff with research training or by an independent evaluator.In either case, training and technical assistance to support program evaluation efforts will be needed to maintain data quality and assist in appropriate analysis and use of the findings. There are several strong arguments for evaluation designs that go further in documenting program impact. Only experimental or quasi-experimental designs provide convincing evidence that program funds are well invested, and that the program is making a real difference to the well-being of the population served. These evaluations need to be conducted by experienced researchers and supported by adequate budgets.A good strategy may be implementing small-scale programs to test alternative models of service delivery in settings that will allow a stronger impact evaluation design than is possible in a large scale, national program. Often program evaluation should proceed in stages. The first year of program operations can be devoted to process studies and performance monitoring, the information from which can serve as a basis for more extensive evaluation efforts once operations are running smoothly. Finally, planning to obtain support for the evaluation at every level-community, program staff, agency leadership and funder-should be extensive.Each of these has a stake in the results. Each should have a voice in planning. And each should perceive clear benefits from the results. Only in this way will the results be acknowledged as valid and actually used for program improvement. Reference Connell, J. P. , Kubisch, A. C. , Schorr, L. B. , and Weiss, C. H. (1995) New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives: Concepts, Methods, and Contexts. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute. Ellickson, P. L. , Bell, R. M. , and McGuigan, K. (1993) â€Å"Preventing Adolescent Drug Use: Long- Term Results of a Junior High School Program. 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K. , Librett, J. J. and Milward, A. R. 1993) Measurements in Prevention: A Manual on Selecting and Using Instruments to Evaluate P revention Programs. Retrieved from: Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, (SMA) 93-2041. Monette, Duane R. , Thomas J. Sullivan, Cornell R. DeJong. Applied Social Research: A Tool for the Human Services, 8th Edition. Wadsworth, 2014-03-11. . MREL Appendix A. Retrieved from: http://www. ecs. org/html/educationIssues/Research/primer/appendixA. asp. Program Evaluation 101: A Workshop. Retrieved from: http://aetcnec. ucsf. edu/evaluation/pacific_evaluation%5B1%5D. ppt.