Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Public Opinion Policy Reproductive Health Health And Social Care Essay

Public sentiment is the sum of single temperaments and beliefs with respects to of import issues. Public sentiment holds great importance in democracies because a democracy, by its very definition, connotes a signifier of authorities that is antiphonal to the people. Democracy is most frequently defined as a set of processs and establishments intended to do the holders of political power straight responsible to the electorates. The quality of democratic authorities is measured by the reactivity of public policymakers to the penchants of the mass populace. For that ground, public sentiment will ever play an of import function in policy-making procedure in the Philippines, a democratic state. Positions and sentiments of the general populace should be taken into consideration in formulating, passing and implementing a policy. Hence, stakeholders and involvements groups ‘ functions are really critical in impacting policy results since stakeholders and involvement groups are the age ncies through which public sentiment is brought in the Halls of the Congress. In position of this, the authorities is faced with the demand to equilibrate the conflicting positions of different stakeholders, involvement and force per unit area groups in the decision-making procedure. This is clearly exemplified in the controversial Reproductive Health measure. This paper surveies the different stakeholders involved in the Reproductive Health Bill and the grade in which they affect policy result based on the resources and resource mobilisation capacities they have. The first portion of this paper includes definition and the presentation of wellness and population state of affairs in the Philippines. The 2nd portion focuses with the commissariats, arguments and advocate of RH measure. The 3rd portion provides an analysis of the different stakeholders and resources and resource mobilisation capacity that they have. Last, the scrutiny of how these stakeholders and involvement groups can really impact policy result and the grade on which they affect it. The contention of RH measure led to many deductions. Generative wellness is now a proverb that enthralled the public attending. Therefore, there is a demand to specify the term based on a standard definition. â€Å" Generative wellness addresses the generative procedures, maps and system at all phases of life. Generative wellness implies that people are able to hold a responsible, hearty and safe sex life and that they have the capableness to reproduce and the freedom to make up one's mind if, when and how frequently to make so † ( World Health Organization ) . Although this appears to be the lone definition of the term in any international papers, the definition implicitly implies that generative wellness includes the right of work forces and adult females to be informed of and to hold entree to safe, effectual, low-cost and acceptable methods of birthrate ordinance of their pick, and the right of entree to allow wellness attention services that will enable adult females to travel safely through gestation and childbearing and supply twosomes with the best opportunity of holding a healthy baby ( International Conference on Population and Development, 1994 ) . Of the eight Millennium Development Goals, accomplishing cosmopolitan entree to reproductive wellness by 2015 is one of the two marks of Goal 5, Bettering Maternal Health. Due to this, a comprehensive survey of the generative wellness in the Philippines is greatly needed and in bend, to develop and really implement a policy that will give Filipinos equal opportunities to the right to reproductive wellness and develop plans that will seek to turn to jobs related to generative wellness in the state. Over the past 30 old ages, developing states ‘ population have rise up about twice the rate of those in the developed and advanced states. As an consequence, a figure of people have caught up with high baby mortality, low life anticipation, disease, malnutrition and illiteracy. Rapid population growing causes troubles in pull offing economic and societal alterations, including the reconciliation of the fruits of economic development attempts ( Leverage International, 2011 ) . Governments of the Third World states and every bit good as of those developed states recognized that the measuring of economic development is non based merely on economic indexs such as income distribution but besides by the quality of life of its people ( Leverage International, 2011 ) . Philippines, as a underdeveloped state, experiences rapid population growing. Harmonizing to the 2007 Census by the National Statistics Office ( NSO ) , the Filipino population was 88.57 million and the estimated population as of 2010 is 94.3 million and this made the state as the 12th most thickly settled state in the universe. This high population consequences to high infant mortality rate which is 19.94 % in 2010. In add-on to this, the life-time hazard of maternal decease in the Philippines is 1 in every 140, harmonizing to United Nations International Children Emergency Fund ‘s State of the World ‘s Children 2009 study. Each twenty-four hours, approximately 11 Filipino female parents – or 4,500 each twelvemonth – dice because of hypertensive upsets, terrible bleeding or other labor- or abortion-related jobs. The state is besides portion of a group of 68 states where 97 % of world-wide maternal, neonatal and child wellness deceases occur. Furthermore, the county is witnessing the fastest spread of the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) in its history. Five new HIV instances are recorded mundane harmonizing to the National Epidemiology Center of the Department of Health. High infant mortality rate, high maternal mortality rate and a figure of HIV instances are non the lone jobs that the Philippines is sing in relation to reproductive wellness. Because of the deficiency of a concrete generative wellness and household planning policy and plan in the state, unwanted gestation incidences become high. Due to this, Filipino adult females are forced to undergo induced abortion as one of the methods that they use to run into their generative ends. Although abortion is illegal in the Philippines, and despite the possible harmful effects of an insecure abortion for adult females ‘s wellness and life, many adult females resort to abortion to run into their family-size ends or to infinite births ( The Guttmacher Institute, 2003 ) . The Incidence of Induced Abortion in the Philippines: Current Degree and Recent TrendsA ( 2005 ) , a survey conducted by Fatima Juarez, Josefina Cabigon, Susheela Singh, and Rubina Hussain for the Guttmacher Institute revealed the followers: Six in 10 Filipino adult females say they have experienced an unintended gestation at some point in their lives. About 1.43 million gestations each twelvemonth — about half of all gestations in the Philippines — are unintended. Some 54 % of adult females who have ended an unintended gestation by abortion were non utilizing any household planning method when they conceived. Of those who were practising contraceptive method, three-quarterss were utilizing a traditional method. The mean Filipino adult female wants 2.5 kids. In order to accomplish that end, she must pass more than 19 old ages utilizing effectual prophylactic methods. However, about half of all married adult females of generative age have an unmet demand for effectual contraceptive method — that is, they are sexually active, are able to hold kids, do non desire a kid shortly or of all time, but are non utilizing any signifier of contraceptive method or are utilizing traditional methods, which have high failure rates. Aside from induced abortion that can take to deceases, other job due to the deficiency of generative wellness policy is the hazard of geting cervical malignant neoplastic disease. The Human Papillomavirus ( HPV ) is a sexually-transmitted, wart-forming virus that has been implicated in doing malignant neoplastic disease of the neck. This is the most common malignant neoplastic disease in adult females secondary to breast malignant neoplastic disease ( Department of Health, 2008 ) . Due to these findings and other statistics such as high baby and mortality rates, these imply that there is an huge demand for a policy to guarantee the right to reproductive wellness in the Philippines. Although generative wellness has long been considered a basic cosmopolitan human right, this right remains elusive and illusory for 1000000s of Filipinos, particularly the hapless. The first comprehensive version of generative wellness measure, House Bill 8110 or â€Å" The Integrated Population and Development Act of 1999 † was filed in the 11th Congress. Twelve old ages after, the state still does non hold a generative wellness policy and the issue of the current generative wellness measures remains a het and controversial issue as the first RH measure. Today, the battle of RH advocators still continues for the transition of a comprehensive generative wellness measure. House Bill 4244 or â€Å" The Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and Development Act of 2011 † is the most recent version of a generative wellness measure that was filed in the fifteenth Congress. H.B. 4244 is popularly known as the amalgamate RH measure in permutation to the other generative wellness measures that are pending in the Congress. The other generative wellness measures are as follows: House Bill 96 ( Rep. Edcel Lagman ) â€Å" An Act Providing for a National Policy on Reproductive Health, Responsible Parenthood and Population Development and for Other Purposes † House Bill 101 ( Rep. Janette Garin ) â€Å" An Act Providing for a National Policy on Reproductive Health and Population Development and for Other Purposes † House Bill 513 ( Reps. Kaka Bag-ao and Warden Bello of Akbayan Partylist ) â€Å" An Act Providing for a National Policy on Reproductive Health and Population and Development and for Other Purposes † House Bill 1160 ( Rep. Rodolfo Biazon ) â€Å" An Act Providing for a National Policy on Reproductive Health and for Other Purposes † House Bill 1520 ( Rep. Judy Syjuco ) â€Å" An Act to Protect the Right of the People to Information on Reproductive Health Care † House Bill 3368 ( Rep. Luzviminda Ilagan and Emmi de Jesus of Gabriela Women ‘s Party ) â€Å" An Act Providing for a National Policy on Reproductive Health for Women and Development and for Other Purposes † H.B 4244 ‘s aims are as follows: To continue and advance regard for life, informed pick, birth spacing and responsible parentage in conformance with internationally recognized human rights criterions. To vouch cosmopolitan entree to medically-safe, legal and choice generative wellness attention services and relevant information even as it prioritizes the demands of adult females and kids. To recognize these ends, the amalgamate RH Bill has the undermentioned cardinal commissariats: Mandates the Department of Health ( DOH ) and Local Health Units in metropoliss and municipalities shall function as the lead bureaus for the execution of this act. Mandates the Population Commission, to be an affiliated bureau of the Department of Health, shall function as a organizing organic structure in the execution of this Act. Provides for the creative activity of an enabling environment for adult females and twosomes to do an informed pick sing the household planning method that is best suited to their demands and personal strong beliefs. The LGUs and the DOH shall guarantee that a Minimum Initial Service Package ( MISP ) for generative wellness, including maternal and neonatal wellness attention kits and services will be given proper attending in crisis state of affairss such as catastrophes and human-centered crises. Provides for a maternal decease reappraisal in LGUs, national and local authorities infirmaries and other public wellness units to diminish the incidence of maternal deceases. Merchandises and supplies for modern household planning methods shall be portion of the National Drug Formulary and the same shall be included in the regular purchase of indispensable medical specialties and supplies of all national and local infirmaries and other authorities wellness units. Ensures the handiness of hospital-based household be aftering methods such as tubal ligation, vasectomy and intrauterine device interpolation in all national and local authorities infirmaries, except in forte infirmaries. Provides for a Mobile Health Care Service in every Congressional District to present wellness attention goods and services. Provides Mandatory Age-appropriate Reproductive Health Education get downing from Grade 5 to Fourth Year High School to develop the young person into responsible grownups. The Department of Labor and Employment ( DOLE ) shall guarantee that employees respect the generative wellness rights of workers. Mandates private and nongovernment generative wellness attention service suppliers to supply at least 48 ( 48 ) hours yearly of generative wellness services free of charge to indigent and low income patients, particularly to pregnant striplings. Mandates metropoliss and municipalities to supply sexual and generative wellness plans for individuals with disablements ( PWDs ) . Mandates the inclusion of the subjects on responsible parentage, household planning, suckling and infant nutrition as indispensable portion of the information given by local Family Planning office to all appliers for matrimony licence. Mandates no less than 10 % addition in the honoraria of community-based voluntary workers, such as the barangay wellness workers, upon successful completion of preparation on the bringing of generative wellness attention services. Creation of Congressional Oversight Committee ( COC ) which shall be composed of five ( 5 ) members each from the Senate and from the House of Representatives which shall supervise and guarantee the effectual execution of this Act, find the built-in failing and loopholes in the jurisprudence, recommend the necessary remedial statute law or administrative steps and execute such other responsibilities and maps as may be necessary to achieve the aims of this Act. Penalizes the lawbreaker of this Act from one month to six months imprisonment or a all right ranging from 10 thousand to fifty thousand pesos or both such mulct and imprisonment at the discretion of the Court. H.B 4244 screens all other six pending RH measures in the Congress but despite the clear intent of the measure, the passage of RH measure is long delinquent. On the other manus, RH measure advocates see the transition of the amalgamate RH measure in the 15th Congress since it was already approved by the House Committee on Population and Family Relations last February 1 and it was besides approved by the Committee on Appropriations with a ballot of 20-3. Last March 8 which is by the way the International Women ‘s Day, RH measure reached the plenary. Biliran Representative Rogelio Espina, president of the Committee on Population and Family Relations, delivered his sponsorship address on Committee Report 664. Three of the six patrons of the measure besides delivered addresss pressing for its transition – Minority Leader and Albay Representative Edcel Lagman, Gabriela partylist Representative Luz Ilagan and Akbayan partylist Representative Arlene â€Å" Kaka † Bag-ao. Meanwhile, President Benigno Aquino III ordered Health Secreaty Enrique Ona to outline the Responsible Parenthood Bill that would possibly function as a â€Å" in-between land † between RH advocators and the Church. Furthermore, the President did besides non include RH measure as portion of his list of policy precedences after the Church issued a pastoral missive entitled Choosing Life, Rejecting RH Bill. Though Rep. Lagman believes that the Malacanang-sponsored version of the RH measure would non be able take the topographic point of a more comprehensive RH measure since it is limited to the issue of household planning and responsible parentage. Furthermore, Health Secretary Ona is a known advocator of generative wellness and household planning. His public dictums have confirmed that he, like his predecessor Sec. Espie Cabral, is unwavering in his belief that RH is a basic human right. Because of this, Cong. Lagman believes that the crafting of the Responsible Parenthood meas ure would and should non detain the transition of the amalgamate RH measure. Cong. Edcel Lagman of the First District of Albay is the chief writer of the amalgamate RH measure. Harmonizing to him, the incidences of baby and maternal mortality in his ain territory are within the scope of the national norm. As a solution, they have set up lying-in clinics and delivering centres in the highland and island barangays of the first territory of Albay so as to guarantee that female parents in far flung barangays can be given exigency and basic obstetric attention. However, the job of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity goes beyond the First District of Albay. The preventable deceases of female parents and kids happen on a national graduated table so the demand to explicate a national policy on generative wellness is imperative. Although he is a Catholic he believes that like many other Catholics in the state, they can be good Catholics and still back up a step like RH measure that puts a premium on quality of life and the protection and fulfillment of the basic human rights to reproductive wellness and sustainable human development. He besides noted that the word â€Å" Catholic † when used as an adjectival means across-the-board, advanced and broad. The opposite word of Catholic is conservative, shockable and intolerant. That is why it is really dry that the Catholic Church peculiarly the Catholic Bishops ‘ Conference of the Philippines ( CBCP ) strongly opposes RH measure. Rep. Lagman is besides the newly-elect chair of one of the governing party in the state, the Lakas Kampi Catholic Muslim Democrats ( CMD ) . However, because of the nature of the party system in the Philippines, this place in his party would non vouch the transition of RH measure. Harmonizing to him, his co-workers are free to back up or oppose an issue as they see fit. Members of his party are non required to vote for or back up RH measure. It is interesting to observe that the former President and the incumbent representative of the 2nd territory of Pampanga, Rep. Gloria Arroyo, who is a member of the Lakas Kampi CMD is known to be a critic of RH measure. In line with this, the conflicting positions on RH measure make non merely happen inside Congress. Central to the issue of RH measure is the political kineticss of the legion histrions involved in impacting the transition of the said measure. The different stakeholders and involvement groups play of import functions in the deliberation of the policy. This put the challenge to the legislators to equilibrate and to be able to accommodate the conflicting positions of these stakeholders and involvement groups. But how did citizens get down to take part in the decision-making procedure? Due to influx of information, there came a higher degree of consciousness among citizens. Peoples ‘s desire to take part in decision-making procedure amplified. People demand more of representation and engagement in the authorities. In less complex times, elected representation was a sufficient agency for most citizens to take part in authorities. Recently, for a figure of grounds, including the diverseness of citizens ‘ cultural heritage, needs, values, and involvements, that has been altering and of class, the alterations brought approximately by modernisation, there is now a strong desire for citizens to be involved loosely in administration and straight in policy determinations. Governments, particularly in developing states, are really vulnerable and they are being assessed based on their economic and political public presentation. And one of the bases of a authorities ‘s political public presentation is its capacity to supply locales for people ‘s engagement and engagement. Hence, positions and sentiments of the general populace should be taken into consideration in formulating, passing and implementing a policy. For this ground, one of the biggest challenges which authorities faces is the demand to equilibrate the conflicting positions of different involvement groups in a peculiar policy. This job is really much observed in the issue of coming up with a generative wellness policy in the Philippines. Conflicting positions and sentiments from legion histrions and stakeholders in the generative wellness measure have ever marred the transition of the said measure. Certain sectors and sections of the population will decidedly be affected upon the execution of the said policy and they besides have different positions sing the transition of RH measure. However, the stakeholders who have the resources to act upon or really find the success or failure of the generative wellness measure are the Roman Catholic Church, the adult females sector and pharmaceutical companies in the state. The tabular array below shows an analysis of the four primary stakeholders in the RH measure. Stake- holder Interest in the Undertaking ( Stake- holder ‘s Potential Impact on the Undertaking ) What does the undertaking expect the stakeholder to supply? Perceived Attitudes Stakeholder Strategy/Resources Government Political public presentation High – Provides financess to guarantee equal entree of people to preventives, generative wellness attention services, household planning information and the compulsory sex instruction – Populace Service – Rent-seeking functionaries Roman Catholic Church – Teachings and Principles of the Church ( Sacredness of Life ) – Credibility – Has a really high ethos – Conservative – Lobbying/putting force per unit area on the government/policymakers to turn down the transition of the RH measure – Consultation with the President ( national degree ) and with territory representatives through bishoprics ( local degree ) – Capacity to act upon public sentiment Womans Organizations/Groups Womans empowerment High – Cooperation with the authorities – Disempowered – Progressive – Corporate action/mobilization for the pressing transition of a generative wellness measure Pharmaceutical Companies Net incomes Low – Brand and supply modern preventives for the authorities Profit-oriented From the stakeholders listed supra, the Catholic Church and organized adult females groups are the primary histrions in the argument in following a generative wellness policy in the state because they are the most seeable in footings of their run for or against the said policy. The Catholic Church is the chief critic of the generative wellness measure because it argues that the policy is anti-life because it promotes the usage of modern contraceptive method steps. Besides, it argues that RH measure does non truly address poorness. In the research worker ‘s interview with Archbishop Oscar V. Cruz and Carmelo Cruz, Catholic Bishops ‘ Conference of the Philippines ‘ ( CBCP ) News Editor, they said that the Catholic Church ‘s judgement in the political public presentation of former President Ferdinand Marcos that significantly contribute for doing EDSA People Power I happened in 1986 is the same as their resistance to the six pending generative wellness measures in the Congress. Their resistance to the immoral government of Pres. Marcos is the same as their resistance to an immoral policy, the generative wellness measure. ( This was besides written in CBCP ‘s Pastoral Letter entitled Choosing Life, Rejecting RH measure issued last January 30, 2011. ) Furthermore, they believe that it is non the hapless Filipino people who will profit from the execution of the generative wellness measure but the foreign proprietors of multinational pharmaceutical companies who will provide modern preventives. They besides believe that if a generative wellness measure will be enacted into jurisprudence, it will paved the manner for the debut and transition of other policies such as policies on divorce, clemency violent death and same sex matrimony. The Catholic Church believes that the transition of a generative wellness measure will deteriorate the reliable homo values and every bit good as the Filipino cultural values in conformity to the instructions of the Church. Archbishop Oscar V. Cruz said that although generative wellness measure can decrease infant and maternal mortality, he argued that the ground behind baby and maternal mortality and morbidity is poverty and unaccessible to basic wellness attention services. Harmonizing to him, wellness attention services are unaccessible to hapless households because of bad administration and corruptness, services are non delivered to hapless communities because public functionary corrupt the money that is intended for communities ‘ public assistance. For these grounds, the solution to infant and maternal mortality in the state is non the generative wellness measure, the solution needs to concentrate to the root causes of the job which is bad administration and poorness. However, the Catholic hierarchy said that is non against the riddance of force against adult females, the intervention of chest malignant neoplastic disease, maternal and child wellness and nutrition and other elements of RH. It is merely against doing modern household planning methods available to adult females and twosomes and the instruction of gender and RH instruction to the young person. The Church believes that RH measure would go against the instructions of the Church specifically the 1968 encyclical Humanae Vitae which is the footing of the Church instruction that preventives are â€Å" per se evil † . The Church has been firm in its base against RH measure. The Church is holding duologues to the current disposal to turn down RH measures that are pending in Congress. Furthermore, the Church through its archdioceses and bishoprics consults representatives from each territory for them to be convinced non to vote for RH measure. Besides, the CBCP issues statements to inform the public why RH measure should non be enacted into jurisprudence. And what is more of import is the impact of the Catholic Church in determining or act uponing public sentiment since bulk of Filipinos are Catholics. Some functionaries are threatened that their base sing the issue on RH measure might impact their political callings. Because of the strong resistance of the Catholic Church to follow a generative wellness policy in the state and the resources it has to impact the determinations of public functionaries, the transition of the measure becomes impossible despite the demand for a generative wellness policy in the state. Last January 30, CBCP issued a pastoral missive against RH measure. As an consequence, the President did non include RH measure from among the Legislative Executive Development Advisory Council ‘s policy measures that likely would unduly detain once more the transition of RH measure. If the Catholic Church strongly oppose RH measure, organized adult females ‘s groups tell the other side of the narrative. Women ‘s organisations such as Gabriela Women ‘s Party and Likhaan Center for Women ‘s Health Inc. stalwartly run for the transition of RH measure. These RH advocator groups believe that the rights of people to reproductive wellness â€Å" do non depend on a few powerful work forces make up one's minding the destiny of adult females † ( Likhaan, 2011 ) . In the explanatory note of House Bill 3368 introduced by Gabriela Women ‘s Party, it states that â€Å" Filipino adult females do non hold to decease at childbearing merely because they are hapless, they do non hold to endure from undiagnosed cervical, chest, vulvar, ovarian or similar malignant neoplastic diseases of the generative system merely because they do non hold entree to adequately staffed and fit public wellness installations†¦ Women do non hold to endure from untreated uterine fibroid or such similar conditions merely because diagnostic processs are dearly-won, adult females should non decease at childbearing because their babies need them for optimum attention, love and fondness if kids are to turn up to recognize their full potency as productive and responsible members of our society. † Due to these grounds, entree to reproductive wellness plans, resources and services for marginalized adult females needs to be guaranteed by the authorities. A national generative wellness policy is seen to offer wellness attention services that will fundamentally profit adult females, particularly the marginalized. Advancing generative wellness rights in a comprehensive, available, accessible, acceptable, and democratic mode is a long delinquent authorization of the Filipino authorities to its female population given the societal and economic worlds in the state. Hence, the blessing of legislators to go through RH measure is indispensable ( Likhaan, 2011 ) . Harmonizing to Junice Demeterio-Melgar, the executive manager of Likhaan and Secretary-General of Reproductive Health Advocacy Network ( RHAN ) , household planning will salvage the lives of female parents because household planning changes the composing of child-bearing. This means that gestations in adult females who are considered at a higher hazard of deceasing from gestation and childbirth-related causes will be dramatically reduced. These are adult females who are excessively immature, excessively old, hold had excessively many kids or have had ceaseless gestations. Medical experts have stated that gestation in adult females below 18 or above 35 is considered high hazard. They have besides emphasized that adult females ‘s organic structures need anyplace from two to three old ages to to the full retrieve from the asperities of gestation and childbearing. Furthermore, the World Health Organization concludes that if adult females have information and entree to preventives and are taught to utilize them decently, â€Å" the autumn in maternal mortality is likely to be even greater than the autumn in the gestation rate. † With their battle for the transition of RH measure, adult females ‘s groups tied up with other RH advocators to coerce legislators to go through RH measure. Generative Health Advocacy Network ( RHAN ) , which has forty-three ( 43 ) national organisations with no less than 10,000 members in grassroots communities countrywide, continues to hold duologues with the President and with their recent duologue, RHAN reminded the President about his Social Contract, which included a committedness to responsible parentage based on informed pick and support to hapless households. RHAN, specifically Likhaan, is disappointed with the President ‘s determination to fall back to a Responsible Parenthood Bill alternatively of a more comprehensive RH measure. Harmonizing to them, farther duologues of the President to CBCP will pin down his disposal into hold and inactivity, or force it to drop the freedom of pick rule in the President ‘s promise of responsible parentage since the Church will ever differ to any RH measure because its resistance to RH is based on the nucleus rule of human life, it is clear that immoveable spiritual beliefs are the bedrock of the bishops ‘ resistance to RH as pointed out by the recent CBCP ‘s pastoral missive. Further duologues or audiences will ne'er alter the stance of the Catholic Church. Aside from duologues, advocators continue to keep fora and arguments on the issues of RH and human development from schools and universities to service nines and community-based organisations. In add-on, they hold mobilisations and mass meetings in forepart of Congress to coerce legislators to ordain the said measure. Both stakeholders prove to be important and effectual in their run for or against RH measure. However, the Church as an established and one of the most powerful establishments in the state which affect public sentiment has an advantage in impacting the result of the said policy. However, RH advocates do non merely have the high quality of Numberss but they besides have the high quality of statements. Although the Church has the capacity to influence or even determine public sentiment, possibly the instance on the argument on RH measure is isolated. Recent study consequences show that bulk of Filipino and Filipino Catholics support RH measure. Although the RH critics say that people are merely misinformed about the content of the step, advocators say that the capacity of Filipinos to understand an issue like RH, responsible parentage and population and development should non be underestimated. Peoples support the RH measure because they realize how of import it is to go a responsible parent. Filipinos besides believe that is non merely of import for them to be able to be after and infinite their kids, it is every bit of import that the State provide information on and entree to all signifiers of household planning methods. The undermentioned informations are consequences of SWS and Pulse Asia studies: Social Weather Station ( October 2008 ) 71 % of Filipinos are in favour of the RH measure ; 76 % of Filipinos agree that there should be a jurisprudence necessitating authorities to learn household planning to the young person ; and 68 % believe that there should be a jurisprudence necessitating authorities to administer legal preventives like rubbers, pills and IUDs Pulse Asia ( February 2010 ) 93 % of Filipinos consider it of import to hold the ability to be after their households ; 82 % of Filipinos believe authorities should learn twosomes about all methods of household planning ; Another 82 % of Filipinos say that it is the authorities ‘s responsibility to supply the people with cognition, services, and stuffs on all methods of household planning ; 75 % of Filipinos consider it of import that a campaigner for election includes modern household planning in the plan of action he will prosecute ; 64 % of Filipinos will vote for campaigners who publically promote modern methods of household planning with merely 6 % stating that they will non vote for such campaigners. The remainder were undecided ; and A considerable bulk of Filipinos ( 63 % ) want the RH measure to be passed into jurisprudence with merely 8 % showing resistance to the step. Even Catholics have spoken: They want the RH measure passed. 68 % of Catholics believe that authorities should administer free preventives to those who want them ( SWS 2008 ) . 76 % of Catholics agree that there should be a jurisprudence necessitating authorities to learn household planning to the young person ( SWS 2008 ) . 71 % of Catholics favor the transition of the RH measure versus merely 68 % of non-Catholics who endorse the measure ( SWS 2008 ) . Religion ranks 9th out of 10 grounds why adult females do non utilize contraceptive method ( DOH Family Planning Survey 2006 ) . RH critics say that people are misinformed about the existent content of the step. However, Rep. Lagman said that if people are misinformed, it is because of the calculated misinformation run being launched by the critics of the measure. The most vocal critics of the measure handily want the issue to be limited to the alleged immoralities of modern contraceptive method. However, although the bulk of the Filipinos are non in line with the CBCP ‘s place on RH measure, the power of Church to influence and determine policy result has been proven in its battle to oppose RH measure. The Church ‘s sentiment on this affair is really decisive since it was able to detain the transition of RH measure until the present clip. However, it is of import to underline that the Church ‘s instructions against contraceptive method is non infallible philosophy. Immediately after the release in 1968 of the encyclical Humanae Vitae, which was based on a minority study of the Papal Birth Control Commission and contrary to the bulk place permissive of preventive usage, Monsignor Fernando Lambrouschini, the so official spokesman for the Vatican, announced: â€Å" attentive reading of the encyclical Humanae Vitae does non propose the theological note of infallibilityaˆÂ ¦ It is non infallible. † Catholics are allowed to oppose Church philosophy which is deemed non-infallible. Therefore, Catholics are allowed to oppose the Church ‘s instructions against contraceptive method. Furthermore, RH measure is non merely about contraceptive method, RH has 11 elements, including, among others, maternal and child wellness and nutrition, intervention of chest and generative piece of land malignant neoplastic diseases, breastfeeding, gender instruction, riddance of force against adult females, intervention and bar of HIV-AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. RH even includes the intervention and bar of sterility and sexual disfunction. In other words, the measure is non merely about household planning. It will besides assist turn to the demands of twosomes who are holding trouble conceiving. Similarly, RH is besides a tool for economic development. The execution of the Reproductive Health Bill could assist in controling the declining effects of rapid population growing. The RH Bill ‘s concrete commissariats on household planning methods would likely assist in commanding the high birthrate and growing rate in the state. Harmonizing to Bulatao ( 1998 ) , member of the United Nations Population Fund, household planning is one of the best methods of turn toing jobs such as exponential growing rate, high birthrate rate and decelerate economic growing rate in the state. Based from surveies, the diminution of entire birthrate rate in the underdeveloped universe over the past decennaries is in conformity with the increasing figure of prophylactic users ( UN, 1991 ) . With this, we could assume that implementing comprehensive household planning methods would perchance modulate the population of the state. Developing states, like the Philippines, could largely profit from ho usehold planning merely like in the instances of China, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam who practiced comprehensive household be aftering methods during the past decennaries. The said states have shown important economic dynamism after successfully pull offing their population growing ( Del Rosario & A ; Toda, 2009 ) . Birth Rate of Taiwan Year Registered Birth Ratess Per 1000 Womans Change in Rate 1962 174 -1.5 1963 170 -2.6 1964 162 -4.9 1965 152 -6 1966 149 -2.1The tabular array shows the diminishing birth rate in Taiwan. This lessening on birth rate happened after the execution of household planning methods. Similarly, a similar narrative happened in Thailand from 1960 ‘s to 1985. Within the new model developed by the Unites States Agency for International Development ‘s Office of Population, developing states are divided into five phases, harmonizing to their degree of modern prophylactic prevalence. States in each of these phases, termed â€Å" emergent † , â€Å" launch † , â€Å" growing † , â€Å" consolidation † and â€Å" mature † are characterized by â€Å" similar birthrate rates and common demands for household planning policies, plans and services † ( Asia-Pacific Population & A ; Policy Report, 1991 ) . Thailand moved out of the emergent phase in the early 1960s and reached the mature phase in 1985 after following a national population policy, developing a scheme of advancing household planning and spread outing preventive services. In 1994, after Thailand ‘s engagement in the International Conference on Population a nd Development ( ICPD ) , generative wellness policies in the said state were reviewed by its National Family Planning Committee. In 1997, Thailand ‘s Minister of Public Health set forth the National Reproductive Health Policy, which includes household planning and maternal and child wellness ( Department of Family and Community Health, World Health Organization, 2004 ) . The lessons from the household be aftering narratives of these two states put in the image the call for the acceptance of a concrete household planning policy in the state. Possibly, Philippines might besides hold the same consequences if the Reproductive Health Bill will be implemented. After all, household planning in its most elemental sense helps in the decrease of unplanned gestations and publicity of slower population growing. Truly, the state needs a generative wellness measure. The arguments on the RH measure are indispensable in guaranting that this policy will profit the whole public particularly the hapless and marginalized sector of the population. However, the endless arguments have besides caused the hold of a policy that the state should hold benefitted a decennary ago. Although these ceaseless arguments had caused the hold of the transition of RH measure, it besides highlighted two of import things: the function of stakeholders, involvement and force per unit area groups in the policy-making procedure and the Catholic Church as a stakeholder is a decisive factor in policy results. The transition of RH measure has been a battle for RH advocators since the primary critic of it is the Catholic Church. However, the recent negativist dictums of the Catholic hierarchy and its determination to non prosecute negotiations with the President sing the step and besides its determination non to take part in t he Senate hearings on the RH measure shows that the transition of RH measure is possible in the fifteenth Congress. However, RH critics in Congress besides contribute to the hold of the transition of RH measure. Harmonizing to Rep. Lagman, one of the chief hurdlings being faced by the writers of the measure is the perennial absenteeism and deficiency of warm organic structures in Plenary. In the arguments during the old Congress, those opposed to the measure would ever oppugn the quorum so as to detain treatments and protract the arguments until the clip that Congress is scheduled to recess. Nevertheless, the bulk of protagonists of RH measure from assorted sectors will besides be a factor for the transition of the said policy. Beyond uncertainty, RH measure would go on to be a controversial issue in the state as different stakeholders will go on to escalate their runs for or against the said measure. It will all boil down to the inquiry whether RH critics would go on to detain the transition of RH measure and would successfully turn down it or RH advocators ‘ battle for a generative wellness policy would be fruitful. The Church had proven to be effectual in their run to oppose the said step while adult females ‘s groups continue to run for the passage of RH measure. Nonetheless, whichever involvement group would win in their battle, it is of import to observe that these involvement groups have played of import functions since RH issue has gripped the public consciousness.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Ogre to Slay, Outsource It to Chinese Essay

David Barbosas brilliantly engages his audience with a catchy title that urges the reader to complete the piece to understand what it is that he is discussing. â€Å"Ogre to Slay? Outsource It to Chinese† is eye-catching and its content and is very thought-provoking and well researched. His preparation for the article includes him finding sources in China, who are engaged in illegal outsourcing of computer game players and contributing to what the Chinese government are attempting to halt, what they call â€Å"internet addiction†. Not only does Barbosas find these valuable sources for information and quote them, he also cites workers in these gaming factories. The effort of his research and concise conclusions to an interesting technological issue makes this piece very well put together and easily readable and understandable to a diverse audience. Barbosas says that this is an issue that spans from â€Å"Seoul to San Francisco† and he is very eloquent in his comparison between the affluent gamers, who are willing to pay Chinese workers to complete initial rounds of computer games and the gamers, themselves, who work 12 hour days, 7 days a week for a mere $250 a month. He does well, also, in showing the change of contrast from what has in history been a clear line between fantasy and reality to illustrate how these lines have blurred. He makes the point of outlining the beginning of the changes in the virtual world of gaming, when gamers began playing others worldwide a few years ago and then when they began becoming so enmeshed with their avatars (or characters that they create), that they pay others to essentially baby-sit them, as the Chinese do or use virtual currency to buy components, such as weapons to help their avatars. Barbosas does well in explaining the complex and intricate world of virtual gaming to even readers, who have no familiarity of the subject. He simultaneously delves into explaining this strange new world while vividly describing the Chinese workers behind the scenes or, more accurately, behind the screens. He paints an interesting picture of what he refers to as, â€Å"virtual sweatshops†. There gamers are playing in dark basements, surrounding by posters of the games they play. These Chinese farmers make up an estimated 40-50% of the gamers involved worldwide in these popular games and it is believed that 1 in 4 internet users in China use their online connection for gaming. In addition to the other staggering statistics Barbosas integrates into his commentary, he integrates what those involved in gaming have to say and what experts share on this issue. One conclusion by an American professor is that this illustrates how the time of Americans is valued more over the time of persons in countries, such as China. In contrast, one owner of a â€Å"sweatshop† believes that if these gamers were not working for him that they would be going back to hard farm work with smaller wages or on the streets. In conclusion, Barbosas shows his journalistic talent in this piece. His research, illustrated by interview citations and statistics, demonstrate his expertise in this strange, technological world. He presents many trends in the world of gaming, in reality versus fantasy, and in the currency involved in these questionable online enterprises. His work is easily readable by a wide audience and his lead-in to the article with it’s catchy title definitely lives up to the interest that title holds.

Monday, July 29, 2019

If a firm wants to maximize profits , it must give careful attention Essay

If a firm wants to maximize profits , it must give careful attention to its pricing decisions .under what conditions does this statement have relevance what a - Essay Example Profit is the difference between the total revenue and total costs of a business enterprise. Profits are considered to arise either as rewards for risk taking or due to the imperfections in the economy or as reward for innovations, according to economic theories (Dean 1977, pp. 5 – 9). Rewards for risk taking: Entrepreneurs are essentially people with the ability to take risks. The risk involved is, to be prepared to accept as their share of the (monetary) value of the enterprise activities, after all costs have been provided for. What is left may be losses or minimal profits or more than reasonable profits. It is this risk that entitles the entrepreneur to keep for himself whatever is left at the end of the day. This is his profit. A good example of the reward for risk taking is photocopying business. When the plain paper photocopying technique was invented, it was a risky business to invest in, as the future would be that of ‘computerized paperless offices’. Rank Xerox Corporation, on the other hand, was willing to accept the risk and acquired the technology and patent rights. The stupendous success of this decision and the great revenues that it brought to Rank Xerox, are legendary ( Imperfections in economy: According to this view, profits arise due to ‘†¦the imperfections in the adjustment of economy to change’ (Dean 1977, p.8). Imperfection refers to the competitive situation. There is a time lag between the occurrence of a change and the return of the market to near-perfect competitive position or equilibrium, and it is during this time of absorbing the change that profits accrue. An example of this type of opportunity is the occasional shortage in supply of food grains due to bad weather or crop failure and the time lag before a government takes corrective actions for increasing supplies through imports etc. Reward for innovation: In this third view on how profits arise, it is postulated that profits are what the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Marketing Communication of Smiths Group Term Paper

Marketing Communication of Smiths Group - Term Paper Example Marketing, on the other hand, has been defined by the American Marketing Association as "an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders". Communication is the most crucial aspect of a successful marketing plan. The stakeholders are to be properly communicated in terms of organizational plans, strategies, and policies. The end-users or the business partners should have a fair knowledge about the product line, the availability of the products, the price, and the promotional measures. And all these could be achieved with proper communication as and when required. With all things in place, without effective communication, the organization can never expect to reach its desired goal. Founded by Samuel Smith way back in 1851, Smiths Group is a leading global technology company today. Since the end of 2000, the company is known as Smiths Group PLC. The company is listed with the London Stock Exchange and has its headquarters at 80, Victoria Street, London. The Smiths Group with its vow to bring technology to life has five major divisions of business namely Smiths Detection, John Crane, Smiths Medical, Smiths Interconnect, and Flex-Tek. According to their website, these divisions "are focused on the threat & contraband detection, medical devices, energy, communications, and engineered components markets worldwide. Our customers range from governments and their agencies to hospitals, petrochemical companies, and equipment manufacturers and service providers in various sectors around the world" (About Smiths, n.d.). Smiths Detection deals with designing and manufacturing of sensors that help to detect and identify explosives, narcotics, weapons, chemical agents, biohazards and contraband. John Crane assists in enhancing productivity for the major process industry which includes the oil and gas, pharmaceutical, chemical, pulp, and paper, etc through its array of products and services.  

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Math Finance Problem Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Finance - Math Problem Example This normally involves hedging a position in one asset by taking a balancing position in different asset that highly correlates with the first asset (Mishken et al. 2009). Complete markets are those markets where every conditional claim is attainable. In this market, there exists a stable price for every asset in all possible positions. As a result, investors can buy insurance contracts to protect against uncertainty in future states and time (Mishken et al. 2009). Arbitrage involves taking concurrent positions in diverse assets such that a riskless profit which is more than the yield on the riskless asset is guaranteed. First arbitrage occurs when an investor makes an investment with no existing net assurance that there would be a positive profit. Second arbitrage occurs when an investor has the opportunity to make an investment with a negative net commitment at that time. Prices are said to be fair if and only if there exists no

Human Rights Act 1998 s 3 s 4 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Human Rights Act 1998 s 3 s 4 - Essay Example Rights Act was geared towards bringing about a â€Å"major constitutional change† within the UK3 in order to ensure that the freedoms and human rights guaranteed to individuals under the European Convention of Human Rights were more effectively incorporated into national law. Klug and Starmer have spelt out the goals of the HRA as follows: (a) ensuring compliances with human rights principles (b) interpreting domestic legislation such that it is compatible with the Act (c) introducing the doctrine of horizontal effect and (d) modifying grounds for judicial review4. In the balance of division of powers within the UK, Parliament emerges supreme and therefore this leads to a centralized form of Government. Parliamentary Sovereignty in the UK has therefore posed the urgent need for Constitutional reform within the country.5 However, Klug and Starmer also point out that five years after the Human Rights Act came into force on 2nd October 2000, conflicting views are offered about its efficacy, with some experts concluding that the only difference is that a wider range of questions may be asked by judicial authorities although the answers remain the same while others contend that UK courts have demonstrated their ability to interpret and apply the principles of the ECHR in national law. The essential conflict with the democratic principles of Parliamentary Sovereignty6 upon which UK law has been based - mandating Parliament’s authority as the supreme law making authority, has also produced resistance to the HRA7. The two major sections of the HRA that are significant are sections 3 and 4. The provisions of Section 3 of the Human Rights Act states that Parliament legislation must be read and given effect to in a way that will be compatible with Convention rights â€Å"so far as it is possible to do so.†8 In the event that domestic legislation is found to be incompatible with individual rights spelt out in the Convention, and statutory interpretation is not possible,

Friday, July 26, 2019

Animals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Animals - Essay Example The blatant and abhorrent obliviousness with which we exploit animal's poses a threat not only to their survival but any further imbalance in nature will start the downfall of mankind itself. Modern medicine owes its advancement to the lives of thousands of animals who were used to experiment the effects of these drugs upon throughout centuries. All the modern drugs and cosmetics were developed through trial and error. Animals have been used for medical testing as far back as the Greek and Roman times. Aristotle was one of the earliest academics to record the used of animals for medical research around 384-322 BC.The practice of vivisection(operating on living animals in order to gain knowledge of pathological or physiological processes) was a necessary evil of the development of medical science and surgical methods. The phenomena of animal medical research has been there for the last two centuries and was started and emphasised upon when research was being carried out upon cardiovascular and nervous systems Darwin's theory of evolution paved the way for scientists to cut up and experiment upon live animals in the name of better understanding of the human body. A movement to prevent such use of animals in the late nineteenth century was stifled by the great advances in medical research being made through animal experimentation.1In the 1950's animal research paved the way for the discovery of Kidney transplants, replacement heart valves ,polio vaccine and hip replacement surgery. In the 1960s and later on animal research produced the cure to heart disease, transplant problems and life saving systems for new born babies. With the issue of animal testing comes the question of ethics. Do we really need animal testing anymore The use of (non-human) animals by humans, particularly for medical experiments, has become a been a topic of heated debate in practical ethics for a long time now and academics debate whether and to what extent animals of various species are " conscious and self-conscious" "Consciousness refers primarily to perception, non-reflective cognition (such as beliefs) and emotion (such as feelings). In the ethical context, its most important components are feelings of pleasure and suffering, and derivatively more particular feelings, such as sexual gratification and fear, respectively. Self-consciousness refers to thinking about one's consciousness. In the ethical context, its most important component is thinking about one's beliefs and feelings, and derivatively about their implications, such as intentions."2 Peter Singer, a prominent animal rights activist has argued that "If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. No matter what the nature of the being, the principle of equality requires that the suffering be counted equally with the like suffering - in so far as rough comparisons can be made - of any other being."3 He goes on to state furthermore that , The claim that self-conscious beings are entitled to prior consideration is compatible with the principle of

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Langston Hughes' Poem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Langston Hughes' Poem - Essay Example In "Rivers, " Hughes claimed this legacy-vocabulary of place encompassing "downriver, " the term for all the dreaded places in the lower South to which slaves were sold off, "the riverside, " one of the relative safe havens and sites of resistance within the domain of the plantation itself, and "over Jordan, " the beckoning frontier of freedom visible from inside the bounds of enslavement and exile as it was elaborated and interpreted in the nineteenth century in the traditional Negro spirituals and in such classic fugitive slave narratives as Frederick Douglass's and Harriet Jacobs's as sites of meditation, rebellion, and recuperation. (R. Baxter Miller, 2005). By placing that inherited vocabulary of place within a wider geographic perspective, however, Hughes proposed a reconstituted imagery of place for the twentieth century, one associated with a progression across continents in a historic and prophetic language of belonging and entitlement, beyond enslavement.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Mathew Brady (the 19th century photographer) and his influence on Term Paper

Mathew Brady (the 19th century photographer) and his influence on historical media - Term Paper Example He is also considered to be one of America’s greatest photographers in his time, during the 19th century. Later on, he became and is currently known to be the father of photojournalism. Born on the eighteenth day of May in the year 1822 in Warren County in the state of New York to an Irish immigrant family, Matthew Brady grew up, later left his Irish immigrant parents and moved to the city of New York when he was only sixteen years of age. When he arrived in that city, he first took the profession of being a clerk in a department store. Soon after working in this job, he created and made his very own business industry in the making, manufacturing and creating cases for jewelry and other trinkets and charms. As a hobby and leisure pursuit, Brady had a great interest and loved to take photographs. He decided to study photography soon after. One of the teachers that he had was William Page. In the year 1839, Page had introduced Brady to Samuel F. B. Morse, who had been one of Page’s instructors and mentors in the art of pictures and was one of the first to ever introduce photography to the United States of America. At that time, Morse just came back from the continent of Europe, who has just begun to start the application of photography, which was still a new process during that time. During his classes as a student of photography, his incredible and exceptional talent and skill in photography was observed and noticed. He was able to quickly realize and find out about his natural ability and gift in taking daguerreotypes and photographs, mostly portraits of renowned Americans. Through Samuel Morse and William Page, he was able to become more and more interested and fascinated with the new art of photography. Because of his growing interest and love for photography and pictures, he later decided to save up his own money to have enough capital in order to create and own his very own photography studio so that he could follow his ambition

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Computer Networking and Management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

Computer Networking and Management - Case Study Example figurations at the data center core switch enable functional areas within each department to operate as independent LANs regardless of their physical locations. Internet-enabled Client Applications The following typical applications are allowed by the security management team to access the Internet: 1. Web browsers (IE 7). 2. Email client (Outlook 2007). 3. Skype client; used for voice chat, instant messaging, video conferencing, and low-cost Internet telephony. These applications were found essential to facilitate immediate contact and collaboration across to other universities and research institutions. No other network applications are allowed access to the Internet. The above Internet clients operate at designated TCP ports, which are open but monitored and occasionally audited though the firewall, to ensure compliance with security and IT access policy set forth by the campus network management. Any other applications requiring access to university wide intranet resources achieve that through a web interface and therefore do not require having arbitrary ports open. Figure : screen shot of web browser, email client, and IM/IPT clients Servers Servers, central security appliances, and edge network appliances are all housed in a secure one-level data center, located within the same campus area. Servers are connected to the main access router via a 10Gbps optical Ethernet. Table 2 illustrates the server distribution, platforms, and functionality. Web server (Linux) 1 central server Hosts the intranet portals and internal applications Mail server (Exchange over Windows 2003) 1 central server Hosts all email accounts and archives Domain Controller (Windows 2003) 1 central server Manages DNS, DHCP, and Active Directory Antivirus server (Linux) 1 central server Manages... This document demonstrates the understanding of some major aspects of computer networking, over three distinct sections. Section 1 considered the internal network of the College of Engineering and presented detailed high level description of user, server, network, and security designs of the network and how it connects to the Internet and to the university core intranet. Section 2 examined the important topic of data encryption. Symmetric and asymmetric ciphers have been described and contrasted. Examples of each have been provided. Also, the use of encryption for message authentication in the form of digital signature and/or message authentication code was discussed and the two schemes were compared. Section 3 considered the topic of congestion control and avoidance for TCP/IP networks, which make the overall transport infrastructure of almost all today’s public and private data networks. Congestion control algorithms were discussed at a topical level and a comparative descri ption of three algorithms (Tahoe, Reno and Vegas) was provided. Section 3 concluded with describing the role of an HTTP proxy and the performance penalty it encounters due to the common use of database driven dynamic web content.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Nevada &import fossil fuels Essay Example for Free

Nevada import fossil fuels Essay I do not think that importation of fossil fuels can sustain the way of life of people Nevada for longer period of time. Firstly, the production of fossil fuels, as well as its use, has environmental disadvantages. As Nevada uses this kind of energy source, people will suffer from different ailments caused by the carbon dioxide produced while converting fossil fuel into energy. What is the use of energy if people will suffer from unhealthy environment? Secondly, fossil fuels take millions of years to be produced and it is non-renewable. Sooner or later, the sources will be depleted and the need to look for alternatives is a must. Second, what things do you think the state government can do to reduce dependence on fossil fuels? To reduce dependence on fossil fuels, the state government may try to pass policies that will encourage investors to create infrastructures that will be home to plants of renewable sources of energy like wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear and others. Third, identify 3 conservation techniques that we can do immediately as individuals to help reduce our dependence on fossil fuels? To decrement the amount of energy being used, the following are 3 conservation techniques that may be used: 1) Residents of the state should save energy being used at home. Home appliances and equipment should be turned off and unplugged when not in use. Also, if the weather is fine, they may not use their air-conditioning units. 2) Commercial buildings in the state should be designed to favor good natural ventilation and lighting. 3) Instead of using energy-burning vehicles in going to near places, people may try walking or riding bicycles. Finally, admit to whether you actually utilize any of these conservation methods! The aforementioned conservation methods are very practical. I utilize those methods without such a big effort. In simple ways, we can help the state reduce dependence on fossil fuels.

Observation and Coaching Essay Example for Free

Observation and Coaching Essay Much about conversation depends on the rapport between the two parties. As Clutterback explains in his title; â€Å"Creating a Coaching Culture,† the quality of a relationship is determined by the rapport between the two parties in it. A good rapport implies a healthy relationship and therefore a learning conversation. Observations of people in conversation can reveal a great deal about the rapport between them and therefore an insight into the relationship they share. The tell-tell signs will be the body language of the parties in conversation as well as the brief moments of silence they share as part of their conversation. After all 55% of communication is done via our body language and facial expression (Albert Mehrabian – Best Practice in Performance Coaching). Though this task required the observation of the conversation of just a group, I must admit that I had to observer a number of groups in a number of settings before focusing on one. As I carried out these observations, the variations coupled with the literature on the subject brought out very many insights into the power of conversation and the enormity of the focus necessary, as a coach, to execute successfully, a learning dialogue. Staying in control is the ultimate goal and even when going down a slippery slope it is you who would have to determine how far down the slide goes. The Setting In my observations, I discovered that social environment in which the conversation takes place can have a great deal to do with the nature of the conversation. Cafes make for very fast light hearted conversations without much pause or reflection from either parties whilst parks and restaurants allowed for a slower pace of conversation with lots of moments of silence presumably accompanied by deep thought and reflection. The setting also shows disposition to certain types of body language expressed by the parties in conversation. Perhaps it is to do with the pace of the conversation or perhaps the social attributes of the environment. People I observe in parks and restaurants tend to demonstrate more closeness and rapport through their body language than those in cafes would. There were longer moments of eye contact, heavier body contact and more varied facial expressions. This is by no means a scientific conclusion on the impact of the conversational setting on the conversation we have as people but however a cue to pay greater attention to the setting of a coaching session with a coachee. I would imagine, the first step in taking control of the conversation is allowing the setting to be conducive to the objective of the coaching session. As I have noticed in the brief observations I have had, the right setting will allow for the right expressions from both parties and therefore facilitate the depth of the conversation. The danger however is to ignore the casual attributions which may then arise from the cultural dispositions of me as a coach and from the coachee as an individual towards their actions in relation to the environment. Casual Attributions in Conversation The reason why I would like to discuss this at this point is because it plays a lot in our reading, perception and judgement of conversation and particularly body language. The casual attribution theory discusses the reason for the judgement we make on why a person behaves or behaved the way they did. Psychological research on attribution has primarily studied the cause of another person’s behaviour. Attributions are ubiquitous in everyday life and as such are easily overlooked in our everyday conversations. As a coach, I believe it is very important to be acutely aware of the attributions we may place on a coachee’s behaviour or reactions and endeavour to keep an open and non-judgemental mind. This will allow our conversations to be much more forthcoming. Heider (1958) purports that perceivers (a role we would occupy as coaches) seek to attribute fleeting behaviour to stable dispositions. They tend to trace action to dispositions of the actor. In other words, a coach might be caught up in making judgements on the actions of the coachee based on the knowledge the coach has gained on the coachee as a person. This tendency was designated by Ross and Nisbett (1991) the fundamental attribution error. When I reflected on my preference to attribution, I noticed that I have a tendency to gravitate towards individualistic attribution tendencies. As a result to be a better coach it necessitates me to actively seek to balance this. Conversation is a two way process and therefore, awareness of the attributions that the coachee might be predisposed to will be vital. Sometimes the coachee’s action might be a reaction to your action(s) as a coach. It will be important to understand the coachee’s attribution tendencies thereby enabling you not only to manage your expressions (body language) but also to fully understand any actions by your coachee. Miller’s research in 1984 provided evidence that understanding of cultures is imperative in understanding the underlying reactions in conversation. Cultural psychology separates the cultures into individualistic and collectivist with both groups showing different tendencies of attribution. I therefore feel understanding your coachee’s background will be an important step towards achieving a learning conversation. Body Language and Rapport Alebert Merhabian’s theory suggests that when people have a rapport between them, they tend to have mirrored body language (Best Practice in Perfomance Coaching; Carol Wilson p129). This was explicit in my observations. I could tell when both parties exhibit mirrored body language such as leaning towards each other and laughing in tandem. This was a clear sign of the rapport between the parties, a significant indication of the intensity of the conversation. It is my belief that a good rapport between two parties in a conversation will make for easy listening enabling the listener to move up the levels of listening (Carol Wilson p21). The rapport between the two will aid in â€Å"cocooning† the conversation and allow for very minimal distraction. As a coach the objective will be to aim for intuitive listening thus developing a good rapport with the coachee is a step in the right direction. As Carol Wilson explains in her book – Best Practice in Performance Coaching – coaching only truly happens when we listen at higher levels i. e. intuitive listening. On the other hand, contrasting body language in a conversation can be indicative of a negative rapport between the parties in conversation. This might lead to a strained and unproductive conversation. Sometimes, it is necessary to stop and look at the underlying factors for the lack of rapport as opposed to â€Å"forcing† the situation by actively trying to mirror your coachee’s body language. This can at times go right down to the setting or environment or possibly the casual attributions tendencies of both individuals. Summary Conclusion Much has been written about communication and conversation. It remains a powerful tool in coaching and therefore the greater the understanding we have as coaches, the better we will be able to use the conversation tool in executing our duties. In this report, I have looked at the impact on communication and conversation of three different aspects and seen how I can better prepare myself as a coach. My observations were a great cue towards helping me understanding communication. To attain my ultimate goal of always remaining in control, there are a good number of things to take into consideration. A lot in this report has focussed on the non-verbal aspects of the communication process. During the observation, I remained a good distance from the target group and therefore could not match the verbal communication to the non-verbal patterns that I observed. I am intrigued to know what the relation between the two will be. Are words a reflection of feelings? Are we more likely to control our physical expressions to avoid â€Å"causing a scene† in a public place? Are we mostly acutely aware of our surroundings? These are questions to which we might have no answers but can be used as important guides in analysing and controlling conversation. I have learned a great deal from these observations to make me a better coach. It is very important to understand and interpret non verbal cues in conversation paying particular attention to our own personal attributions as coaches that we might bring into the relationship.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Effect of the Financial Crisis on Islamic Banks

Effect of the Financial Crisis on Islamic Banks Islamic banking is a very young concept even though it has already been implemented as the only system in two Muslim countries; there are Islamic banks in many Muslim countries, and a few in non-Muslim countries as well. Despite the successful acceptance there are problems. These problems are mainly in the area of financing. Dubai Islamic Bank was the first private interest free bank and was set up by a group of Muslim business men from different countries in 1975. in 1977 two more private banks under the name of Faisal Islamic bank were founded in Sudan and Egypt. Since the establishment of the Dubai Islamic Bank, more than 50 interest free banks have been set up. Most of them are in Muslim countries but there are others in Western Europe as well as Denmark, UK, and also Switzerland. All the interest free banks use basic principles that are agreed upon but individual banks have different ways of implementing and applying the principles. These differences are brought about by a countries laws, the circumstances facing the bank, its objectives and experience as well as its interaction with other banks. The features of the Islamic banks The interest free banks have three kinds of deposits, namely; current accounts, savings accounts and investment accounts. The current accounts operate just like the other conventional banks. In the savings accounts are treated differently depending on the banks policies. In some cases, the banks are allowed to use the clients money but they have to guarantee to give back full the full amount. In this cases, no capital is promised. On the other hand, savings accounts are treated as if they were investment accounts but they have less stringent withdrawal and minimum balance conditions. In these cases the expected profits level are usually low and only a portion of the average minimum balance is awarded. With the investment accounts, deposits are accepted for a given period of time and the investors make an agreement in advance on how the profits will be shared with the banks. For this accounts, a capital is not guaranteed. MODES OF FINANCING The mode of financing in the Islamic banks is carried out in three ways; investment financing, trade financing, and also lending. Investment financing has three perspectives; musharaka, mudharaba and estimated rates on return basis investment. In mushraka, the bank joins another bank to set up a joint venture with both parties participating in their different activities. The profit or loss made from the venture business is shares among the banks in accordance to a pre arranged agreement. This venture is usually an independent legal entity and the bank has the right to gradually withdraw after the initial period. In mudarabha, a bank contributes finances required for an investment and the client sources and provides the needed expertise, labor as well as the management to oversee things. The profit gained from these investment is shared between the bank and the client according to a pre arranged plan. Incase losses are made, the bank takes responsibility. Financing on the basis of an estimated rate of return. The bank makes an estimation of the expected rate of returns on an investment on project that it has been requested by a client to finance. The bank then provides the financing on the condition that the rate is payable to the bank in a given time period or intervals. Incase the expected rate on return is higher than the estimated rate, the client takes the excess profits but if it is less than the estimated rate, the bank accepts the lower rates. In case of a loss, the bank shares in it. Trade financing Trade financing is also carried out in several ways; mark up, leasing, hire purchase, sell an buy back, and letters of credit. In the mark up approach, the bank buys an asset for the client and is to be paid at a certain time for a certain price and some profit. In leasing, the bank simply purchase an item and leases to a client for an agreed time. At the end of this time period, the client pays the balance and becomes the owner of the item. Hire purchase is similar to leasing only that the item purchased by the bank is hired to the client for a given period and when the ends, the client automatically becomes the owner if the item. The buy and sell back approach entails a client selling an asset to the bank at a price payable immediately and promises to buy it back from the bank after an agreed time period and for a pre determined price. Letters of credit involves international trade. In this case, the bank uses its funds to guarantee the import of an item in place of the client, on condition that the profits made from the sale of the item will be shared between the bank and the client. LENDING The third mode of financing used in the Islamic banks is lending and it has three forms namely; loans with service charge, no cost loans and bank overdrafts. Loans with service charge are loans that are given to the clients with no interest but a service charge is levied to cover the expenses incurred by the bank during the transaction. No cost loans are loans offered by the bank and no interest or service charge is required. The bank is required to set aside funds to enable it to grant these loans that are aimed at helping the needy people and also the small businesses. Bank overdrafts are also allowed in the Islamic banks and free of charge but they are subject to a certain maximum. Other services offered by the Islamic banks are; money transfers, bill collections as well as foreign currency trade which is at a spot rate. Islamic bankers treat their depositors as partners, in the sense that they have invested their money in the bank and the profits and losses should be shared accordingly The effects of financial crisis on Islamic banking Islamic banks looks at the sharia law for guidance in its activities and bans interest gaining activities and trading debt. Islamic finance is being promoted as way of dealing with the financial crises that is global. This year is said to be a mile stone for Islamic banking in the sense that the global financial crises has provided the Islamic banking with a golden opportunity globally re establish itself as a main stream and a financier and provider for equity and debt. The main reason as to why Islamic financing is said to be a good remedy for the current market is the fact that one can only promise what they have. For the first time, Islamic banking has been considered as a choice among the present structures and the current systems in reference to products and solutions to the financial crisis. It is therefore important for nations to adopt the Islamic banking techniques and principles in running their economies. Islamic banking industry is facing challenges and most of these challenges are in real estate and stock prices, according to advocates the system has built-in protection from the kind of runaway collapse that has afflicted so many institutions. The use of financial instruments like derivatives, which are said to contribute highly to the down fall of banks, insurance and investment giants, is banned. The dealing of Islamic banks is directly linked to economic activities that involve assets or the provision of services. This banking system is also distinguished from other financial systems fo it commitment in upholding integrity and its way of avoiding risky business activities. The reason as to why this global financial crises has greatly affected other banks especially the world bank is their involvement in debt buying and accounts enlargement without evident or tangible transactions being carried out. The fact that the Islamic banking has been the least affected by the financial crisis has made it more attractive. Islamic Banking portrays many new and unique ideas that present the Islamic Banking system as a way of ensuring full employment, equitability of wealth, prices stability, income distribution, and sustained growth. The Islamic bank also carries out investigations on the nature and functions of money in interest free banking system and then, integrates money in capital theory. The lack of debt in the Islamic financial systems has saved it from many financial problems that are brought about by bad credit and this has seen its survival through rough financial periods. Also its prohibition of a risk free interest on return and trading permission has made the financial activities in an Islamic financial set up to be real estate backed and this gives it the ability to bring about value addition. The success of the Islamic banking regardless of the global financial crises is attributed to its capitalist financial system. The reason as to why Islamic banks have remained immune to the mortgage problem acing the international finance systems is because of their inherent factors. These factors include ; taking precautionary measures against money laundering, prohibiting trading in debt and also the professional and official restraints on taking up risky projects. There were complains that the Islamic banks were not offering genuine Islamic banking products they offered products similar to those in other commercial banks and gave them an Islamic name with the aim of attracting commercial banks customers who did not want to pay interests. The effects of the global financial crisis on the Islamic banks was not known since the Islamic banks received a lot of support from many other governments. Instead, the Islamic banks have taken precautionary measures and diversified their economic activities so as to avoid the financial crises consequences. It is argued that the global crises might continue for the next two years but the Islamic banks have secured liquidity which places it at a better position in facing the financial crisis in comparison to other financial systems. This success has led to serious considerations of using Islamic banking principles as it has continued to realize more achievements and has proved to be resilient an d viable to the currently crisis hit financial system

Saturday, July 20, 2019

An Evolving Relationship in The Circling Hand Essay -- Circling Hand

An Evolving Relationship in  The Circling Hand    An evolving mother-daughter relationship is the focus of Jamaica Kincaid s autobiographical   The Circling Hand.  Ã‚   Like the narrator, Kincaid grew up in Antigua as the only child her mother and carpenter father.   Also like the narrator, Kincaid admits her mother kept everything she ever wore.  Ã‚   This narrative is a coming of age story, in which this dynamic and unusual mother-daughter relationship plays an important role.   Through the beginning bliss of childhood to the frustrating stage of adolescence, this unique relationship, in which the daughter is infatuated with her mother, seems to control the narrator s development as a free ­thinking person.      Ã‚  Ã‚   It is easily inferred that the narrator sees her mother as extremely beautiful.   She even sits and thinks about it in class.   She describes her mother s head   as if it should be on a sixpence,   (Kincaid 807).   She stares at her mother s long neck and hair and glorifies virtually every feature.   The narrator even makes reference to the fact that many women had loved her father, but he chose her regal mother.   This heightens her mother s stature in the narrator s eyes.  Ã‚   Through her thorough description of her mother s beauty, the narrator conveys her obsession with every detail of her mother.  Ã‚   Although the narrator s adoration for her mother s physical appearance is vast, the longing to be like her and be with her is even greater.      Ã‚  Ã‚   The narrator spends her young childhood drunk with love for her mother.   She happily sleeps late on school holidays, follows her mother ar... ...tionship has completely evolved and the narrator somewhat comes into her own  ­ a natural and inevitable process.      Ã‚  Ã‚   As a result of the freshly severed apron strings, while at her new school, the narrator starts to   love   a new friend named Gwen.   When she shares her day with her mother and does not mention her new - found love, this is her young mind s way of saying   You have your life and I have mine and I don t have to tell you about it.  Ã‚   While the mother  ­ daughter relationship still exist, the narrator forms another relationship, making her less dependant on the first.   The evolution of adolescence is the theme of the story, but the transformation of the mother daughter relationship proves to be the most drastic change the narrator goes through at an age revolved   around change.   

Friday, July 19, 2019

Stress and stain :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Simple Stress and Strain   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The strength of materials are expressed from the point of view of machine designer. A machine designer needs to know the properties of different materials so that he can select the most suitable material for each part of a machine. A machine designer uses his information of stress to make sure that the stress is reasonable and that each part of the machine is sufficiently strong. Strength of materials is the scientific area of applied mechanics for the study of the strength of engineering materials and their mechanical behavior in general (such as stress, deformation, strain and stress-strain relations). Strength is considered in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, and shear strength, namely the limit states of compressive stress, tensile stress and shear stress respectively.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One can see the importance of stress and strain. They are an indication of how severely the part in machine is loaded and how it is a factor that determines whether the forces applied are reasonable. Stress and strain always occur together. When a material is subjected to stress, it deforms, and when a material is deformed there must be strain. If the stress and strain are not the same for all materials, then it is found by experiments There is a relation between the stress and the strain for any given material. It said, when the relationship between the two are given, the stress and the strain can be found in one another. All materials deform when subjected to stress and it is necessary to be able to calculate the deformation of a body under load, because in most cases the deformation is more momentous than the stress.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stress is in all probability the most imperative word in the subject matter of strength of materials. Stress is defined as force per unit area. It has the same units as pressure, and in fact pressure is one special variety of stress. However, stress is a much more complex quantity than pressure because it varies both with direction and with the surface it acts on. The simple stress are: compression (stress that acts to shorten an object), tension (stress that acts to lengthen an object), and shear (stress that acts parallel to a surface). Shear can cause one object to slide over another. It also tends to deform originally rectangular objects into parallelograms. The most general definition is that shear acts to change the angles in an object.

Influence of George Berkeley :: This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison Philosopher Essays

The Influence of George Berkeley George Berkeley (1685-1753) was an Irish clergyman and philosopher who studied and taught at Trinity College in Ireland, where he completed some of his best known works on the immateriality of matter (believing that all matter was composed of ideas of perception and therefore did not exist if it was not being perceived). Coleridge himself acknowledge the influence of Berkeley on his work, in particular his poem â€Å"This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison† when he wrote a letter to Robert Southey in July 1797, in which the poem was included, with the following note, â€Å"You remember, I am a Berkleian.† We can see the influence of Berkeleyin â€Å"This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison† in three main ways: perceptions of light, the idea of a divine spirit in everything yet still separate and itself, and the idea that there are as many â€Å"minima visibilia† in an enclosed space as out in the wide-open spaces. According to Stephen Prickett, one of the main ideas that Berkeley had hoped to prove was that all reality is mental, but the idea that truly came through in his works is that each person does not perceive object, but instead qualities (like color, form, sent, and sound), and each person perceives these qualities differently. Prickett goes further to claim that the effect of this idea on Coleridge â€Å"was to make him intensely conscious of light† (12). We can see this obsession with light and they way it plays on different object throughout â€Å"This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison†: Pale beneath the blaze Hung the transparent foliage; and I watch’d Some broad and sunny leaf, and lov’d to see The shadow of the leaf and stem above Dappling its sunshine! And that walnut-tree Was richly ting’d, and a deep radiance lay Full on the ancient ivy, which usurps Those fronting elms, and now, with blackest mass Makes their dark branches gleam a lighter hue Through the late twilight†¦ Coleridge’s preoccupation with light and the way in which it changes the perception of the object is what links this passage with the ideas of Berkeley. Even though Coleridge and many other Romantics (such as Wordsworth) used the came to different conclusions about perception than Berkeley, his theories about light â€Å"pointed to the why in which such phenomena of light as the rainbow could be used as a scientific model for the imagination as a perceptual relationship between man and nature† (Prickett 13).

Thursday, July 18, 2019

The Two Fridas

Below is a free essay on â€Å"Frida Kahlo's The Two Fridas† from Anti Essays, your source for free research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Frida Kahlo was one of the most influential and well-known Mexican artists during her time. Her popularity was probably so large due to her ability to instill intense and bold emotions into her paintings. People responded to her style very well, and her work spread throughout Mexico, America, and the world. Kahlo’s bold style came from her strong personality and her interactions in the world.She often included her own life struggles or emotions in her artwork. The Two Fridas, or Las Dos Fridas, shows Frida Kahlo’s bold style and her use of it to communicate intense personal emotions. The first step in any art criticism is to observe and analyze the visual facts. The visual facts, in this particular case, are in the actual painting The Two Fridas. The painting is a self-portrait containing two women that are symbolic of Frida Kahlo. The women have completely different appearances, but are linked in this picture.The women are sitting side-by-side in identical sitting formation. The two are also physically connected through the connected vein. The surroundings and accessories of the women look to be that of separation and each respective woman’s (or physiological side’s) style. The sky behind the women displays a dark and eerie sky. The woman on the left is wearing a formal white European-style dress. The dress is very proper and has the characteristics of sophisticated attire. The dress is very frilly and has an eloquent pattern on the upper portion of the dress.The dress covers the majority of her body and the woman’s skin is paler than that of the second woman. Both attributes listed above point in the direction of a high-class individual. Another high-class and proper property shown by the woman on the left is her hair and make-up. She has very neat and tied down hair. He r make-up is very accurately and crisply put on. Overall, the woman on the left is very presentable in high-class society. The woman on the right has a very different appearance. This woman†¦

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Leadership Quality of Kumar Mangalam Birla Essay

Are we doing anything we potbelly to help nation be the best they can be? asked Birla in the Q203 issue of The invigorated Manager. The suspicion is close to his heart. Since he took everywhere the reins at the Birla sort let on he has rivet on fine tuning the themes talent pool. If this meant taking lowering decisions Birla did not shy a trend. More than 350 ranking(prenominal)(a) managers left the classify. Some through innate attrition, differents through counseling, leaving space for sore faces and crude talent.Management means attracting talented people, nurturing them, developing them, and giving them space, asserts Birla, decisions get to be do at every level and decisions indigence to be quick. So, we be possessed of to spot, report and groom talent at every level of the organization, because more than people need to be making high note decisions. To build this culture in the pigeonholing, Birla has created a system found on meritocracy. His HR e nterprises f any beneath three panoptic heads cultivation and relearning, performance prudence and organisational renewal. For theoretical account Gyanodaya, the groups learning center f totallys in the original category.It helps in the transfer of best practices across group companies thus sharpening the groups competitive edge. The training calendar is handy to employees via Aditya Disha, the group wide intranet, and the teaching programs lie toss off of a mix of classroom, outreach, and e-learning initiatives. Birla has in addition instituted The Organisational wellness Survey (OHS) which tracks the satisfaction levels of 8,670 managers across the group. A direct issue of such initiatives is that forthwith his brand as an employer has enhanced significantly, allowing Birla to approach to some of the best minds and talent visible(prenominal) in the country.The group is considered among the acquit 20 preferred employers in Asia. For performance management Birla inst ituted the Aditya Birla Sun awards an annual internal awards system. hither each group company makes an outspoken presentation on their successes and failures to a group of 400 managers drawn from divers(prenominal) group line of business sectores. This leads to information sharing and also encourages kempt competition in the group. Birla believes that star per designers need appreciation and recognition. It is very consequential for people who atomic number 18 doing well to be told they are doing well, he says.He insists that performance levels tack considerably higher after a person/team receives an award. The Aditya Birla award is for teams spell the chairmans award is for privates. A group company that has won many such awards is Hindalco. Birla has transformed Hindalco into a globally competitive non-ferrous metals company. The first step was to mingle the copper sectionalisation of Indo gulf with Hindalco integrate the groups non-ferrous metals business under a ce company with 40% commercialise share. He acquired 74. 6 % equity jeopardise in Indal for Rs 10 bn to make it a wholly owned subsidiary of Hindalco.This made him the largest producer of atomic number 13 in India and straightaway Hindalco-Indal command a 70% mart share. Having made Hindalco competitive forthwith Birla is pursue market growth. He recently entered the Rs 2. 50 bn branded foil market. Within a course of study of launch Hindalco captured a 40% market share and put a robust distribution in place. hold year Hindalco launched of as many as five branded products. The launch of strain Alloy Wheels in early 2002, laughablely posted as dress code for your gondola car, was followed by the launch of its kitchen utility celestial orbit Freshwrapp aluminium foil and Freshpakk semi-rigid containers, and Everlast roofing sheets.Hindalco also introduced Al Planet, a unique exhibition format highlighting products from the substitute aluminium industry. For organic gro wth Birla has embarked on an Rs18 bn brownfield expansion at Hindalcos compound complex in Renukoot to increase aluminum metal might from 100,000 TPA to 342,000 TPA. This will hold Hindalcos leaders position in the domestic market and improve its exporting markets as well. But while Birla was revamping Hindalco, a move towards untangling the cross-holdings among group companies, a legacy of the licence raj, was also initiated.He unified his diverse companies under the Aditya Birla crowd head. If one were to encapsulate it (the group strategy) in a single word the overriding strategic theme over the prehistoric four years has been consolidation, says Birla. The process was threefold. Birla rearranged the companies, fused market presence in the different industries and then went on an acquisition fling to further strengthen leadership position. The result is a streamlined group with all aluminium companies merged under Hindalco, cementumum companies under Grasim, copper com panies under Birla blur and textiles and garments under Indian Rayon.Losing some of its vent making divisions also made Indo Gulf a debt free fertilizer company. In the process the groups revenues have risen from Rs 72 bn to Rs 270 bn in octette years. Our strategy dictates that we get out of businesses where we are bit players and strengthen the businesses where we have discharge competencies, so that we get to the exit of the compact or consolidate our position in that location, as the case may be. This leads to a live wire and tighter business portfolio with our firepower being better targeted, says Birla. Birla began with Grasim in 1995.His first step was to move the cement division of Indian Rayon to Grasim, thereby desegregation the cement holdings within the group. Then in 2003 he acquired the cement division of Larsen & Toubro for Rs 22 bn increasing Grasims total force to 31 MTPY. now Grasim is the largest producer of cement in India and the seventh largest in th e world. comparablely the copper division of Indo Gulf was divested and interconnected into Birla Copper. Then Birla increased the smelter capacity of Birla Copper from 100,00 to 150,00 MTPY and acquired two copper mines in Australia.Birla has been nicknamed the non-ferrous general by the industry his aluminium, copper, and cytosine black units are ranked among the top three in their respective segments. Indian Rayon also saw dramatic substitutes in portfolio. Its cement division was demerged. Then it acquired Madura Garments, the apparels and garments division of Madura Coats for Rs 2. 6 bn in January 2000. This bump offover gave Indian Rayon ownership of prominent brands Louis Philippe, Van Heusen, Allen Solly, Byford, woodpecker England and San Frisco. This marked a dramatic change in focus for the commodity based group.Though a major(ip) player in textiles, Birla had not been able to continue the branded menswear market. Building brands from scratch takes metre as well as money, and the easiest way was to acquire an established one. The apparels business is one in which we want a leadership position. We will make a think entry into the high-value, ready-to-wear segment. This acquisition as well as the acquisition of definite overseas brand rights has catapulted the group to the top of the league in the branded apparels market, says Birla. Today after a long tip of negative growth Madura Garments has reported a 14. % increase in revenues. As a part of the restructuring process he change Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals to ONGC. The exit from MRPL indicates our firm resolve to rationalized the Groups portfolio of businesses with a view on the future, and also bears testimony of our commitment to a key group of stakeholders our lenders, says Birla. The other major restructuring at Indian Rayon was demerging the insulator business into a new JV with Nipponese company NGK to sustain leadership position and to acquire a global market network for the insulator business.The consolidation initiative has allowed each company to emerge with a stronger balance sheet. The three largest companies in the group, Grasim, Hindalco, Indian Rayon, turned in a additive net profit of Rs 10. 55 bn in FY03, a jump of 2. 1% from FY02. Their unite sales increased to Rs 110. 45 bn in FY03, an increase of 36% over the front year. The groups overall revenues affected Rs 2,700 bn. Management musical mode Birla is his fathers son, but he has gradually genuine his own personal management style.Commonalities admit performance orientation, a strict optic for detail, close attention to budgets. Differences include more informal interaction with managers from top to fucking a greater gap in the midst of personal and office life and a strong emphasis on monetary performance. For example he has replaced the old Parta system, which cerebrate only on production with the hard currency Value Added method, which emphasizes profit might, asset p roductivity and growth. Birla is a firm believer in meritocracy. In his fathers time, there were some(prenominal) marwaris in top management. Today there are plenty of non-marwaris.He places a destiny of emphasis on HR and hired Santrupt Mishra from Hindustan Lever to spearhead the groups HR initiatives. A 360 degree feedback program that allows managers to question even Birlas own leadership style and does away with the babu culture customary in the group. But while on one hand Birla nurtures employees, on the other he is very careful well-nigh performance measures. Birla is equally adamant round strict adherence to policies and procedures that have been discussed and approved. For example he introduced a retirement indemnity, similar to the one Ratan Tata introduced over at the TataGroup.While a cresendo of unhappiness was perceive at Bombay House, peaceful silence reigned at Industry House. At Lever House, no doubt Vindi Banga is closely watching these events. Birlas retire ment policy saw 325 senior executives, between the ages of 62 and 65, step down after years of service. Though the policy was drafted in 2001, he took a year to implement. He then hired xcl young executives to infuse fresh and out of the box thinking in the group. I think its been one of the most important decisions Ive had to make, says Birla.People skills are Birlas biggest strength. He has the ability to get on with both the old guard and the new turks. Soft spoken and insistent Birla likes to be directly involved. For example he sends individual notes to employees regarding their performance. Debu Bhattacharya currently the managing director of Hindalco and another former Hindustan Lever employee says, it wont be an exaggeration to say that I united this group because of Mr Birla. For somebody who is from a super respected MNC in the country, going to an Indian business house, I had a lot of reservations.My reservations came from that perception of the group. But I was so over awed with his simplicity, his genuineness, and his ability to explain ingenuous things without trying to sell the job. If I had to take that decision all over over again Id do the same. For all this Kumar is a low profile person, with a sense of humor and the rare ability to laugh at himself. This ease spills into his business relationships. For example the stalemate between the houses of Tata and Birla is now history. Ratan Tata recently invited Birla to join the get on with of Tata Steel, and Birla just as easily accepted.