Thursday, October 31, 2019

What are the basic task dimensions of work systems such as jobs Essay

What are the basic task dimensions of work systems such as jobs - Essay Example These dimensions are a collaborative work of Timothy Butler, Director of Career Development Programs at Harvard Business School, and James Waldroop of Peregrine Partners. According to them these dimensions are: The research is based on the fact that where there is discretionary task completion, there is less participatory work of designing job elements as the task is determined by his / her subjective standards (Yuen, Hopp, & Iravani). SPIEGELAERE, S. D. (2012). Job Design and Innovative Work Behavior: One Size Does Not Fit All Types of Employees.  Job Design and Innovative Work Behavior: One Size Does Not Fit All Types of Employees,  8(4). Retrieved from Yuen, G., Hopp, W. J., & Iravani, S. M. (n.d.). Operation Systems with Discretionary Task Completion.  Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Retrieved  March  11, 2013, from

Monday, October 28, 2019

Road to Independence Revolution Essay Example for Free

Road to Independence Revolution Essay â€Å"War is when the government tells you who the bad guy is. Revolution is when you decide for yourself.†(Unknown) In the case of the American Revolution, the colonists decided for themselves and truly believed in the cause. The Colonists knew that â€Å"change† had to take place because of the unfair treatment they experienced. The American Revolution was a time where Colonists fought for what they believed in, independence, and when they broke away from England. Boycotts, holding Congresses, and forming patriotic groups were the three most effective actions Colonists took, that led to the American Revolution. The boycotts were an effective action the Colonists took, leading up to the Revolution. During the boycotts, Colonists refused to buy British and European goods in order to protest against the British acts. Aware of the growing opposition, Parliament repealed all the Townshend Acts, except the one on tea. As a result, Colonists ended their boycotts, and started to trade with British merchants again. Few years later, the Continental Congress decided to boycott all British goods and trade. No British product could be brought into or consumed in the colonies, and no colonial goods could be shipped to Britain. To protest the Stamp Act, thousands of Americans refused to buy British and European goods. They also signed nonimportation agreements in which they pledged not to buy or use goods imported from Britain. As a result of boycotts, the Parliament canceled the remaining acts. In addition to the boycotts, Colonists also formed Congresses. Debating Proposals at the Continental Congresses led to the American Revolution. The colonial leaders need to unify the colonies against the British policies, led to the formation of congresses. The first congress was the Stamp Act Congress, assembled in October 1765. The Stamp Act placed tax on almost all printed materials in the colonies everything from newspapers and pamphlets to wills and playing cards. All printed materials had to have a stamp, which was applied by British officials. In October representatives from nine colonies met in New York at the Stamp Act Congress. They sent a petition to the king declaring that only colonial institutes shoul d be allowed to apply taxes. In March 1766, Parliament gave in to the colonists’ demands and repealed the Stamp Act. In September 1774, 55 men sent as delegates from all colonies except Georgia, to the city of Philadelphia for the First Continental Congress. These men had come to establish a political body to represent American interests and challenge British control. In this Congress, the delegates called to repeal 13 acts stating they violate the colonists rights. In addition, they voted to boycott all British goods and trade. One major decision was to endorse the Suffolk Resolves, which called the people of Suffolk Country, Massachusetts to fight against the redcoats. These armed groups were called militias. On May 10 1775, the Second Continental Congress assembled. That was the first Congress in which independence was discussed. It authorized the printing of money, and set up a post office. It also established committees to communicate with Native Americans and with other countries. Most important, the Congress created the Continental Army to fight against Britain in a more organized way than t he colonial militias did. The Congress chose George Washington to be the Army’s commander. The Second Continental Congress began to govern the colonies. King George III refused to receive the Olive Branch Petition a formal request; it assured the king of the colonists desire for peace. In addition to Congresses, colonists also formed patriotic groups to fight against Britain. Forming patriotic groups was an effective action that led to the American Revolution. Patriots formed two groups to fight against the redcoats, the Committees of Correspondence and the Sons of Liberty. The Son of Liberty was formed to protest the Stamp Act. In 1772, Samuel Adams formed the Committees of Correspondence to form communication between colonies of bad acts by British troops. The Committees of Correspondence spread throughout the colonies, bringing together protesters from all over the colonies. It also circulated writings about British injustice. Colonial leaders used news of the killing in the Boson Massacre as propaganda information designed to influence opinion -against British. As time went by, the group grew much larger than the nine people it started out with. The forming of patriotic groups helped to fight against the redcoats. These patriotic groups, like the Liberty, made Britain colonial officials nervous. Forming these patriotic groups was a major step in gaining Independence. Boycotts, holding Congresses, and forming patriotic groups were the three most effective actions Colonists took leading up to the American Revolution. The Boycotts were an effective action the Colonists took, leading up to the Revolution. Debating Proposals at the Continental Congresses led to the American Revolution. Forming patriotic groups was an effective action that led to the American Revolution. A spirit of Independence became obvious early in the history of the American people. Far from the established rules and limitations they had faced in their home countries, the new settlers began to make their own laws and develop their own ways of doing things.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Communication Mechanism System

Communication Mechanism System Explain the importance of intercellular communication and describe the mechanism involved. Intercellular communication is important because it assist the nervous system to elongate the long-term process as growth, development, or reproduction. The endocrine system uses chemical messengers to relay information and instructions between cells. One of the mechanisms involved in intercellular communication is know as direct communication this communication is rare but is important when it occurs. This is when two cells of the same type and the cells must be in extensive physical contact. The cells are so close they function as one. The majority of the communication is known as paracrine communication which is where the cell continuously exchange chemical messages between each other so they in sink with one another. Compare and contrast the modes of intercellular communication used by the endocrine and nervous systems and discuss the functional significance of the differences between the two systems. The nervous system performs short term â€Å"crisis management† and the endocrine system regulates long-term, ongoing metabolic processes. The endocrine system uses endocrine communication which helps regulate hormones through the circulatory system and the nervous system dose not have the capability to do this. Another significant difference is synaptic communication the nervous system uses this form of communication of neurons to release neurotransmitter at a synapse very close to a target cell that bear the right receptors. This form of communication allows the body to react quickly to situations to escape from harm. 3. Explain the general mechanisms of hormonal action and identify which hormone types work through each mechanisms. A hormone receptor is a protein molecule to which a particular molecule binds strongly. Each cell has receptors for responding to several different hormones, but cells in different tissues have different combinations of receptors. For every cell, the presence or absence of a specific receptor determines the cells hormonal sensitivities. Hormone receptors are located either on the cell membrane or inside the cell. The mechanisms of hormonal action are that receptors for catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids are in the cell membrane of target cells, Thyroid and steroid hormones cross the cell membrane and bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus, activating or inactivating specific genes. 4. Describe the control of endocrine organs. The endocrine organs are controlled by three mechanisms of the hypothalamic control. One is the secretion of regulatory hormones to control activity of anterior lobe of pituitary gland. Two the production of ADH and oxytocin. And finally is the control of sympathetic output to adrenal medullae. Explain the structural and functional relationship between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland releases nine important peptide hormones; all bind to membrane receptors and use cyclic-AMP as a second messenger. The pituitary gland hangs inferior to the hypothalamus which all the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to help in the function of the hypophyseal portal system. By the hypothalamus secreting specific regulatory hormones it controls the production of hormones in the anterior lobe. This whole system works to secret hormones from the hypothalamus through the pituitary gland in a network of capillaries that are connected. All this ensures that all the hypothalamic hormones entering the portal vessels will reach the target cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland before entering general circulation. 6. Predict how alternations in hormone production, delivery, or reception by target tissues would affect its action and blood concentration levels. Describe the factors that could determine a cells hormonal sensitivity. Cells sensitivity is determined by two factors down-regulation and up-regulation. Down regulation is a process in which the presence of a hormone triggers a decrease in the number of hormone receptors. This process is when levels of particular hormones are high, cells become less sensitive to it. Up-regulation is a process in which the absence of a hormone triggers an increase in the number of hormone receptors. In this process the levels of a particular hormone are low, cells become more sensitive to it. Identify the hormones produced by the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland and specify the functions of those hormones. The anterior lobe produces seven hormones: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) targets the thyroid gland and triggers the release of thyroid hormones. As circulation concentrations of thyroid hormones rise, the rate of TRH and TSH production decline. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the release of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex and targets cells that produce glucocorticoids. Gonadotropins regulate the activities of the gonads. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes follicle development in females and, in combination with luteinizing hormone, stimulates the secretion if estrogen by ovarian cells. In males, FSH stimulates sustentacular cells, specialized cells in the tubules where sperm differentiate. Luteinizing hormone (LH) induces ovulation, the production of reproductive cell in females. Also promotes the secretion, by the ovaries, of estrogen and the progestin, which prepare the body for pregnancy. In male hormone is sometimes called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH), because it stimulates the production of sex hormones by the interstitial cells of the testes. Prolactin (PRL) works with other hormones to stimulate mammary gland development. Growth hormone (GH) stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis. The posterior lobe produces two hormones: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is released in response to a variety of stimuli, most notably a rise in the solute concentration in the blood or a fall in blood volume or blood pressure. A rise in the solute concentration stimulates specialized hypothalamic neurons. Oxytocin (OT) stimulates smooth muscles contraction in the wall of the uterus, promoting labor and delivery. After delivery this hormones stimulates the contraction of myoepithelial cells around the secretory alveoli and the ducts of the mammary gland, promoting the ejection of milk. Discussion the results of abnormal levels of pituitary hormones Abnormal levels of pituitary hormones can have a cast and complex impact on the growth, fertility, and function on the human body via the effect of the hormones on their target organs. Diseases anywhere from asthma to growth problems can occur. Identify the hormones produced by the thyroid gland, specify the functions of those hormones, and discuss the causes and results of abnormal levels of thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland produces thyroglobulin, tyrosine, and thyroxine. The functions of these hormones are: Thyroid hormones enter target cells by means of an energy dependent transport system and they affect almost every cell in the body. Thyroid hormones bound to cytoplasmic receptors are held in storage until intracellular levels of thyroid hormone decline. Thyroid hormones bound to mitochondria increase ATP production. Thyroid hormones bound to receptors in the nucleus activates genes that control energy utilization. The calorigenic effect: the cell consumes more energy resulting in increased heat generation. In growing children, thyroid hormones are essential to normal development of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. The thyroid gland is primarily responsible for a strong, immediate, and short-lived increase in the rate of cellular metabolism. The major factor controlling the rate of thyroid hormone release is the concentration of TSH in the circulating blood. The causes of abnormal levels of thyroid hormones can create an iodide deficiency because in the U.S. we consume more than they daily amount needed. Thyroid hormone production declines, regardless of the circulating levels of TSH. Describe the functions of the parathyroid hormones, and the effects of abnormal functions of each hormone. Parathyroid hormone has four major effects: 1. It stimulates osteoclasts, accelerating mineral turnover and the release of Ca2+ from bone. 2. It inhibits osteoblasts, reducing the rate of calcium deposition in bone. 3. It enhances the reabsorption of Ca2+ at the kidneys, reducing urinary losses. 4. It stimulates the formation and secretion of calcitriol at the kidneys. The effects of calcitriol complement or enhance those of PTH, but one major effect of calcitriol is the enhancement of Ca2+ and PO43- absorption by the digestive tract. The parathyroid glands, aided by calcitriol, are the primary regulators of blood calcium I levels in healthy adults. When the parathyroid calcium levels become abnormal there are two disorders that can occur. Hypoparathyroidism the gland secretes low calcium concentrations in body fluid. Hyperparathyroidism is when calcium concentrations become abnormally high. Identify the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and medulla and specify the functions of each hormone The adrenal cortex secrets the hormones adrenocortical, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens. The adrenocortical steroids or corticosteroids are vital: if the adrenal glands are destroyed or removed, the individual will die unless corticosteroids are administered. Mineralocorticoids increase renal reabsorption of Na+ and water which accelerates urinary loss of potassium. Glucocorticoids release amino acids from skeletal muscles and lipids from adipose tissue; promote liver formation of glucose and glycogen; promotes peripheral utilization of lipids; anti-inflammatory effects. Androgens are not important in men; encourages bone growth, muscle growth, and blood formation in children and women. The adrenal medulla secrets epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones increase cardiac activity, blood pressure, glycogen breakdown, blood glucose levels; releases lipids by adipose tissue. Also this is where the fight or flight syndrome is sparked. Discuss the results of abnormal levels of adrenal hormone production When the adrenal hormone becomes abnormal it produces several different disorders. The first is hypoaldosteronism; the zona glomerulosa fails to produce enough aldosterone, generally either as an early sign of adrenal insufficiency or because the kidneys are not releasing adequate amounts of rein. A rare but serious disorder can occur called Addisons disease which results from inadequate stimulations of the zona fasciculata by the pituitary hormone ACTH or, more commonly, from the inability of the adrenal cells to synthesize the necessary hormones, generally from adrenal cell loss caused by autoimmune problems. Another disease is Cushings disease which results from overproduction of glucocorticoids. There is another aspect of abnormal production of adrenal hormones that affects men and womens sexual characteristics called adrenogenital syndrome. In women, this condition leads to the gradual development of male secondary sex characteristics, including body and facial hair patters. In male to causes an increase of estrogen resulting in larger breast tissue or other female secondary sex characteristics. Last but not least there is a disorder of the adrenal medulla called pheochromocytoma which is an overproduction of epinephrine that causes a tumor that produces catecholamines in massive quantities. Describe the functions of the hormones produced by the pineal gland. It contains pinealocytes, which synthesize the hormone melatonin. The suggested functions of the pineal gland is that it inhibits reproductive functions, protects against damage by free radicals, and sets circadian rhythms. Identify the hormones produced by the pancreas and specify the functions of those hormones. The pancreas contains both exocrine and endocrine cells. Cells of the endocrine pancreas form clusters called pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans). The pancreatic islets release insulin and glucagons. Insulin is released when blood glucose levels rise, and it stimulates glucose transport into, and utilization by, peripheral tissues. Glucagon is released when blood glucose levels decline, and it stimulates glycogen breakdown, glucose synthesis, and fatty acid release. Discuss the results of abnormal levels of pancreatic hormone production. When the pancreatic hormones produce abnormal levels of insulin and glucose it causes an individual to be diabetic. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by glucose concentration that is high enough to overwhelm the reabsorption capabilities of the kidneys. Glucose appears in the urine, and urine production generally becomes excessive. Describe the functions of the hormones produced by the kidneys, heart, thymus, testes, ovaries, and adipose tissue. Control of the heart, kidneys, thymus, gonads, and adipose tissue. The kidneys release erythropoietin and calcitriol into the red bone marrow, intestinal lining, bone and kidneys. All of the hormones releases are to stimulate red blood cell production and calcium and phosphate absorption and it also stimulates calcium ions from bone; inhibits PTH secretion. The heart controls the hormones natriuretic that targets the kidneys, hypothalamus, and adrenal gland. These hormones increase water and salt loss at kidneys; decrease thirst; and suppress secretion of ADH and aldosterone. The adipose tissue contain two hormones that support to different functions, first is leptin which targets the hypothalamus for suppression of appetite; permissive effects on GnRH and gonadotropin synthesis. Second is resistin that targets cell throughout the body that suppresses insulin response. Last but not least are the gonads with the hormones androgens, inhibin, estrogen and progestin. All these hormones a re targeted by the pituitary glands to support the reproductive organs in males and females. In males the interstitial cells of the testes produce androgens. Testosterone is the most important sex hormone in males. Sustentacular cells in the testes support the differentiation and physical maturation of sperm. Under FSH stimulation, these cells secrete the hormone inhibin, which inhibits the secretion of FSH at the anterior lobe. The female body develops oocytes in the follicles; follicle cells produce estrogens, especially estradiol. After ovulation, the remaining follicle cells reorganize into a corpus luteum. Those cells release a mixture of estrogens and progestins, especially progesterone. Explain how hormones interact to produce coordinated physiological responses. Hormones interact to produce coordinated physiological responses in four ways: 1. antagonistic (opposing) effects 2. synergistic (additive) effects 3. permissive effects, in which one hormone is necessary for another to produce its effect 4. integrative effects, in which hormones produce different, but complementary, results Identify the hormones that are especially important to normal growth, and discuss their roles. Several hormones are especially important: GH, thyroid hormones, insulin, PTH, calcitriol and reproductive hormones. The circulation concentrations of these hormones are regulated independently. Changes produce unique individual growth patterns. Growth Hormone (GH): effects are most apparent in children where GH supports muscular and skeletal development. In adults GH assists in the maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations and in the mobilization of lipid reserves. Thyroid hormones: if these hormones are absent during fetal development or for the first year after birth, the nervous system will fail to develop normally and mental retardation will result. If T4 concentrations decline before puberty, normal skeletal development will not continue. Insulin: without insulin the passage of glucose and amino acids across cell membranes will be drastically reduced or eliminated. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Calcitriol: promote the absorption of calcium salts for subsequent deposition in bone. Without adequate levels of both hormones, bones will be weak and flexible. Reproductive Hormones: the sex hormones (androgens in males, estrogens in females) stimulate cell growth and differentiation in their target tissues. Differential growth induced by each hormone accounts for gender-related differences in skeletal proportions and secondary sex characteristics. Define the general adaptation syndrome. Any condition that threatens homeostasis is a stress. Our bodies respond to a variety of stress-causing factors through the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), or stress response. The GAS can be divided into three phases: 1. the alarm phase 2. the resistance phase 3. the exhaustion phase

Thursday, October 24, 2019

A Career in Electrical Engineering Essays -- Papers

A Career in Electrical Engineering Choosing the right career can mean the difference between being satisfied and being disappointed with my life. Many factors can influence the career that I may have for the rest of my life. A decision that I am going to make at the young age of nineteen will have a major impact on the next ten years if not the rest of my life. In order to make the best decision possible for my future I have decided, if not forced, to research a career of interest to me. The two major career choices I have been interested in for the past few years have been engineering and teaching. I have already done researched teaching so I decided to research engineering. There are many different types of engineering so I decided to pick the one most interesting to me. Electrical engineering is the career field I have selected to investigate. Engineering is something my parents have urged me to consider. Since a young kid I have been interested in building things. I use to tell my parents I wanted to be an inventor and build a time machine. Legos were my favorite toy growing up, and I have always been exceptionally good in math. Since my freshmen year in high school I have been interested in becoming a teacher, but during my freshmen year in college I was becoming more and more aware of the amount of money lower level teachers made. Many people were recommending engineering as a possible career option so I decided to look into it. Since I have always found electricity to be cool I decided to learn more about electrical engineering as a future career field. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles code for electrical engineering is 003.061-010, while the Guide for Occupational Exploration code is 05.01.01. There is anot... ... edge as an electrical engineer or whatever occupation I choose to enter. I feel very satisfied with the information I obtained. At times I was bored in this class being the only male, and having to listen to a bunch of females whine over stuff I didn’t care about. With regards to electrical engineering I leaned that electrical engineering is boring, and does not seem like an occupation I would enjoy. The people I talked to about engineering were happy with their jobs but were also nerds. I think I should really consider teaching as a possible career choice. Therefore, I am not certain about the career choices I have made. I think I will try to major in math and become a math teacher; I can always change my major if I am not happy with how things are going. I have learned that my happiness will be increased with better career satisfaction versus monetary gain.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

How Does Technology Influence the Google Generation

Nowadays, with the advancement of technology, our current generation, the so-called â€Å"Google generation†, is being influenced in a negative way. So what is the actual meaning of â€Å"Google generation†? One of the common definitions is that â€Å"The â€Å"Google generation† is a popular phrase that refers to a generation of young people, born after 1993, growing up in a world dominated by the Internet† (Rowlands et al. 292). However, that definition is not definitely precise. Jim Ashling says, â€Å"Everyone is members of the Google generation. All age groups exhibit some Google-generation traits† (22). Thus, the Google generation encompasses not only the young, but also the other generations. Which one creates the Google generation? The answer is technology. Since it is inherent in every area of life, the Google generation is impacted by it, which consists of changing their behaviors, affecting their critical thinking, swaying their reading habit, and making the children digital-age. The internet is currently considered an integral part of the society. It provides both advantages and disadvantages. For one thing, the information literacy of young people has not been improved with the widening access to technology (Rowlands et al. 95). Further, Internet research shows that the speed of young people's web searching means that little time is spent in evaluating information, either for relevance, accuracy or authority (Rowlands et al. 295). This will make them more work-shy. In addition, young people have a poor understanding of their information needs and thus find it difficult to develop effective search strategies (Rowlands et al. 295). As a result, they exhibit a strong preference for expressing themselves in natural language rather than analyzing which key words might be more effective (Rowlands et al. 295). Moreover, young people have unsophisticated mental maps of what the internet is, often failing to appreciate that it is a collection of networked resources from different providers (Rowlands et al. 296). Consequently, the search engine, Yahoo or Google, becomes the primary brands that they associate with the internet (Rowlands et al. 296). Therefore, their ability of evaluating and searching information will principally count on the search tools, and their creativity will be restricted. In the other words, it can be considered a type of artificial literacy. When they receive information of a specific topic, they think that they understand it. However, no one recognizes that information is extracted from technology, especially the internet, not from their authentic perceptions. â€Å"Critical thinking as an attitude is embedded in Western culture. There is a belief that argument is the way to finding truth,† observes Adrian West, research director at the Edward de Bono Foundation U. K. , and a former computer science lecturer at the University of Manchester (Greengard 18). Thereby, critical thinking is very crucial in speculating the information. If one loses that ability, he cannot perceive the entity of issues. Unfortunately, currently rapid development of technology causes their thinking process to be passive. They are not able to think the way which was formerly. In contrast, their present thinking process may be called machinery sense. Greengard states about this issue: Although there is little debate that computer technology complements and often enhances the human mind in the quest to store information and process an ever-growing tangle of bits and bytes, there is increasing concern that the same technology is changing the way we approach complex problems and conundrums, and making it more difficult to really think (18). Additionally, the wealth of communications and information can easily overwhelm our reasoning abilities (Greengard 18). Accordingly, Bugeja concludes â€Å"Without critical thinking, we create trivia† (Greengard 19). Seriously, it is time to take a closer and more serious look at technology and understand the subtleties of how it affects the thinking process. What’s more, their reading habit is one of technology’s considerable victims. According to the National Endowment for the Arts, literary reading declined 10 percentage points from 1982 to 2002 and the rate of decline is accelerating (Greengard 18). That is an authentically alarming statistic. Along with a diversity of information on the internet, their reading habit has been lessened drastically. The reason is that previously, people only collected information through books, which are the chief source. They regularly read almost all pages of a book. Notwithstanding, the technology distraction level is accelerating to the point where thinking deeply is difficult (Greengard 18). They are overwhelmed by a constant barrage of devices and tasks, and increasingly suffer from the Google syndrome (Greengard 18). People accept what they read and believe what they see online is fact when it is not (Greengard 18). Nicholas Carr, a journalist, told that it used to be easy to immerse himself in a book or a lengthy article. Nonetheless, the Net distracted his concentration on reading. He has to struggle against his reading habit that used to come naturally. For more than a decade now, he has been spending most of time online, searching, and surfing on the internet. As a result, the Net seems to chip away his capacity for concentration and contemplation. It is not only Nicholas’s problem, but is ours as well. The authors of the study report say: It is clear that users are not reading online in the traditional sense; indeed there are signs that new forms of â€Å"reading† are emerging as users â€Å"power browse† horizontally through titles, contents pages and abstracts going for quick wins. It almost seems that they go online to avoid reading in the traditional sense. (Carr, par. ) Also, he supposes that the Google generation comes to rely on computers to mediate their understanding of the world; it is their own intelligence that flattens into artificial intelligence (Carr, par. 36). At any rate, they are able to absorb the benefits of reading through the internet and keep the traditional habits because reading is learning and entertaining. The most striking example of the Google generation is the â€Å"digital-age† kids (O’Brien, par. 1). Why are they called â€Å"digital-age†? O’Brien has a 15-year-old son whose study is completely distracted by the technology. She had to keep a deep eye on him whenever he took an exam. She says â€Å"Every time I crossed the threshold, the scene was the same: textbooks remained firmly closed in his bag while the laptop was open on his desk. On the screen was some history/ physics/English document, but also his Facebook and iTunes pages. In his ears were the iPod plugs, playing back a podcast. And sometimes, just to fracture his concentration even further, he might have had a half-played video running on YouTube as well† (O’Brien, par. 3 and 4). She was irritated to keep his son on concentrating. From her problem, she concludes â€Å"He’s a digital native; you’re a digital immigrant† (O’Brien, par. 6). Digital natives and digital immigrants are terms named by the American futurist, Marc Prensky, to distinguish between those who have grown up with technology and those who have adapted to it (O’Brien, par. 7). According to researchers, the children are in the midst of a sea change in the way that they read and think (O’Brien, par. 8). They have wonderfully flexible minds. Further, they absorb information quickly, adapt to changes and are adept at culling from multiple sources. But they are also suffering from internet-induced attention deficit disorder (O’Brien, par. 8). Rose Luckin, Professor of Learner- Centred Design at the London Knowledge Lab and a visiting professor at the University of Sussex, is working on a study examining the internet's impact on pupils' critical and meta-cognitive skills. â€Å"The worrying view coming through is that students are lacking in reflective awareness,† she says. â€Å"Technology makes it easy for them to collate information, but not to analyze and understand it† (O’Brien, par. ). In short, it is time the society should do something to improve the digital-age children. Therefore, the role of parents and teachers are constantly respected and highly valued, like Rose Luckin says: Because they have been using digital technology all their lives, our children feel they have authority over it. But technology cannot teach them to reflect upon and evaluate the information they are gathering online. For that, the role of teachers and parents remains fundamentally important. (O’Brien, par. 2) Even though technology brings many various utilities to the civilization of the society, there are some issues on which are scouted out seriously. The Google generation ought to be aware of how to harness it. Do not let it affect the behavior, the ability of thinking critically, reading habit, and â€Å"digital-age† children. At any events, they should utilize the best benefits of technology to improve the life in a proper way. Keep in mind that technology can be a good servant, but it can be also a bad boss.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination essayEssay Writing Service

Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination essayEssay Writing Service Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination essay Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination essayThe regulation of individuals’ social behavior is carried out through the system of individual attitudes. The forms of attitudes, stable and closed from the influence of new experience, are presented by stereotypes and prejudices. Their cognitive component contains distorted, irrational, absurd knowledge about objects that do not meet the changing reality. With respect to inanimate objects this refers, for example, to all sorts of superstitions, but in the social sphere, stereotypes and prejudices widely serve as the justification of racial, ethnic, class and economic differences. The significance of prejudices and stereotypes as an illusory, fantastic explanation of reality consists in the fact that they indirectly contribute to the preservation of social inequality and inhibit progressive change.  Prejudice and stereotypes as illusionStereotypes mean extremely stable and limited understanding of a social object or situation b y which people are guided in their behavior without a second thought (Myers, 2012; Feenstra, 2013). A major role in the structure of a stereotype belongs to its emotional charge, which clearly indicates to what is acceptable and unacceptable in relation to any object. Thus, if an object of a stereotype is another person, the major features are often one’s gender, nationality, or profession, while other differences may be unduly ignored. According to Inzlicht and Schmader (2011), the specificity of this approach lies in the unconscious division of people into â€Å"us† and â€Å"them† with ingroup experiences perceived as idealized and endowed with pculiarities in a positive way (autostereotype), while outgroups are endowed with negative assessments (heterostereotype). As a result, stereotypes form a simplified and highly superficial understanding of the social reality phenomena.In its turn, the concept of prejudice includes irrational components of social and in dividual consciousness, based on the inaccurate, distorted, stereotypized knowledge that was accepted uncritically, with the negative emotional manifestations becoming intense (Myers, 2012; Feenstra, 2013). A person with a prejudice may not like those who are different and discriminate against them by one’s actions. Thus, while prejudice is a negative attitude, discrimination is a negative behavior. In general, basing on Myers (2012) and Inzlicht and Schmader (2011) studies, negative assessments as a measure of prejudice may be linked to the emotional associations, need to justify one’s discriminatory behavior or stable negative beliefs, i.e. stereotypes.Prejudices and stereotypes have several sources as they perform several functions. In particular, they can express a sense of one’s Self and the desire to seek affectation from the society; defend self-concept from anxiety caused by uncertainty about one’s own safety or internal conflict; as well as suppo rt group interests, values, and social status. Given the latter, in our opinion, one of the most important origins of prejudice and stereotypes is social inequality. It is difficult, for example, to disagree with Inzlicht and Schmader (2011) that stereotypical views about African Americans and women help to justify the lower social status of these groups. Indeed, prejudices basically help justify the economic and social superiority of those with wealth and power. Meanwhile, attitudes can easily match the social hierarchy not only because they justify it, but also because occurring discrimination affects those who become its victims, and so the social beliefs can turn into self-fulfilling prophecies, as Myers (2012) and Feenstra (2013) argue.In addition, identifying ourselves with certain groups, we include social identification into the personal one (i.e. a sense of personal qualities and attitudes). As Myers (2012) marks, categorizing people into groups, we thus contrast our group to other groups (â€Å"they†) with a clear predisposition and manifestation of favoritism for our own groups. As a result, a sense of belonging (â€Å"we†-feeling) increases our self-concept and helps to achieve inner peace. We are looking for not only self-esteem, but also opportunities to be proud of our group. Moreover, the fact that we perceive our groups as different in the better way from the others contributes to the situation where we also tend to see ourselves in a more attractive light (Myers, 2012; Feenstra, 2013). On this basis, stereotypes successfully fix in the public mind, and conformism here plays an important role. Indeed, the shaped prejudices are kept up mainly by inertia, as Feenstra (2013) reasonably notes. If a prejudice is accepted by the society, the majority will prefer to take the path of least and will promote stereotypes not so much because of the need to hate someone as because of the desire to be accepted and valued by this society.In its essence, the underlying cause of stereotypes’ adoption is a non-developed cognitive component (Myers, 2012; Inzlicht Schmader, 2011). In particular, explaining the actions of others, an individual often makes a fundamental attribution error: being inclined to attribute the behavior of people to their internal dispositions, one does not consider important situational forces (Feenstra, 2013). In addition, as Myers (2012) puts this, it is an attribution error that makes an individual biased in the interpretation of one’s own group members’ behavior as positive, whereas positive actions committed by the members of an out-group are usually not taken into account. In general, we sometimes make judgments or start communicating with someone having nothing but a stereotype at hand. In such cases, stereotypes and prejudice are able to fully deprive of objectivity and distort the interpretation and memories of people and environment.  ConclusionThe modern view of preju dice arising due to the recent studies leads us to an idea of how stereotypical thinking becomes a byproduct of information processing – a method individuals apply to simplify the perception of the world. However, the emergence of illusive relationships between the belonging to a certain social group and one’s behavior has both cognitive sources and cognitive consequences. Directing our interpretation and our memories, stereotypical thinking results in the fact that we find evidence in its favor, even where such evidence is not present at all. Therefore, stereotypes are resilient and difficult to modify. And yet, there are some reserve methods that can weaken them. Thus, if status inequality creates prejudice, the society should strive to create relationships where cooperation and social equality will dominate. In particular, if we know that some type of discrimination is based on prejudice, we need to get rid of discrimination, but depriving it of any institutional su pport. Generally, it is believed that the psychological and social health of a person is based on awareness of both one’s own individuality and uniqueness and group identity, as well as one’s belonging to all humanity.

Monday, October 21, 2019

How to Use a My Service Canada Account

How to Use a My Service Canada Account The My Service Canada Account (MSCA) is available from Service Canada, the federal department charged with delivering a wide variety of government services. The account provides secure online access to view and update your personal information on Employment Insurance (EI), the Canada Pension Plan (CPP), and Old Age Security (OAS). How to Obtain an Access Code Before you can register for a My Service Canada Account, you need an access code- either an EI access code if you are applying for EI benefits or a Personal Access Code, which you must request. The four-digit EI Access Code is printed in the shaded area on the benefit statement mailed to you after you apply for Employment Insurance. To request a seven-digit Personal Access Code (PAC), read the information on the Request a Personal Access Code page. Read and print the Privacy Notice Statement for your records. Select continue, provide the following information, and submit your: Social Insurance NumberFirst nameLast nameDate of birthMothers maiden namePostal code and address information It will take five  to 10 days to receive your PAC by mail. Once you have an access code, you can register for a My Service Canada Account online. How to Register and Log In At the MSCA website, you can choose between logging in with CGKey using a Government of Canada User ID and password or using credentials you may already have with a Sign-In Partner, such as those you use for online banking. When you use a Sign-In Partner, Service Canada will not share personal information with the partner about the government services you access and the partner will not provide personal information it holds to Service Canada during the login process. Service Canada will not know which partner you are using. If you are a first-time user, follow the registration instructions to complete the sign-up process before logging in. GCKey Registration First, read and accept the terms and conditions. Be prepared to: Create a User IDCreate recovery questions, answers, and hintsCreate and confirm a password Sign-In Partner Registration Read and agree to the terms and conditionsSelect a Sign-In Partner Employment Insurance (EI) Once you are logged in, you can use the My Service Canada Account tool to view your electronic Records of Employment (ROEs) and information on your EI claim, including your weekly benefit rate, the start and end date of your claim, the start and end of your waiting period, your allowable earnings, the number of weeks you will be entitled to receive EI benefits, the number of weeks of EI benefits you have already received, payment dates, and details about payment deductions. This account tool also allows you to: View information on past EI claimsSubmit an Absence From Canada formSubmit a Course or Training formPrint your T4E tax slip for EI benefits to use when filing your income tax returnStart or stop the mailing of your T4E tax slipsRegister to pay EI premiums on your self-employment incomeChange your address or telephone informationSign up for direct deposit or change your banking information Canada Pension Plan (CPP) The My Service Account allows you to view information about your Canada Pension Plan (CPP) benefits and view and print your CPP Statement of Contributions. You can also use this tool to: Get an estimate of your CPP retirement benefitsPrint your T4A(P) tax slip for CPP benefits to use when you file your income taxesStart or stop the mailing of your T4A(P) tax slipsChange your address or telephone information (some exceptions apply)Sign up for direct deposit or change your banking information Old Age Security (OAS) Information on Old Age Security (OAS) benefits is also available in the My Service Account. The details of your benefits- including payment dates and monthly amounts- is found here. The tool also allows you to: Print your T4A (OAS) tax slip for OAS income for your income tax returnChange your address or telephone information (some exceptions apply)Sign up for direct deposit or change your banking information Questions and Assistance If you have difficulty using the My Service Canada Account tool, visit the nearest Service Canada Office. Experienced government personnel will be available to answer questions and provide assistance.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Genius Paper-Alexander The Great

Genius Paper-Alexander The Great The term Genius has its roots in Latin and means guardian spirit, Websters Dictionary defines genius in a number of ways, including: a person with Extraordinary intellectual and creative power, a person of extraordinary intellect and talent, a person who has an exceptionally high intelligence quotient, typically above 140, a strong natural talent, aptitude, or inclination or one who has such a talent or inclination. Alexander III of Macedon, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, is to many historians, a genius for his statesmanship and his military might. In this paper I will further illustrate some of Alexanders cultural and social achievements, providing a clearer illustration for the reasons why he is deemed a genius.BackgroundHistorical records show that Alexander the Great or in Greek: Alexandros III o Makedon, meaning "Defender of Men", was born in Pella, Macedonia, the area around present day Thessaloniki in northern Greece, in late July of 356 BC, on the same day on whi ch the famous Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was destroyed by fire.Niketerion (victory medallion) bearing the effigy ...According to John J. Popovich, his father, Philip II of Macedon, was a brilliant ruler and strategist. His mother was Olympias, princess of Epirus, daughter of King Neoptolemus. Olympias was initiated into the cults of Dionysus and Orpheus. She was often jealous, vindictive and very protective of Alexander.Popovich describes the boy Alexander as, “fearless and strong. At the age of twelve, he tamed the beautiful and spirited Bucephalus ("ox-head" in Greek), a horse that no one else could ride. Philip was so proud of Alexander's horsemanship that he said: O my son, seek out a kingdom worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee.Later, this famous stallion carried him as far as India up to the Hydaspes River, where he died. There Alexander built...

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Along lines of Process and emotional struggle with ADHD in the Family Research Paper

Along lines of Process and emotional struggle with ADHD in the Family - Research Paper Example It is because of the abnormal function of the brain that certain disorders are seen in the human beings.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is an example of such a disorder which diminishes the normal functions of the brain. Initially it was thought that ADHD only occurred in adults but it has been found that this condition also affects adults. This essay would revolve around the perspectives of ADHD and as to how it affects the children. ADHD is a neuropsychiatric condition which is characterized by lack of attention or concentration for a long period of time. It is because of this characteristic that the persons suffering from ADHD have difficulty in carrying out their daily life activities.This essay would revolve around the diagnosis of ADHD along with the treatment and other related issues of ADHD (Grosenbach 2000 & Whiteman et al 1995).Historical Context In order to understand the basics of ADHD it is necessary that it is studied in its historical context. ADHD was first d iscovered in the early eighteenth century by George Still. The name given to the disorder has changed ever since its discovery.George Still conducted a research to find out that 20 children were suffering from the problem of attention deficiency. It was here that he put forward a theory regarding these children that they may be suffering from a genetic problem.George Still named the disorder as the Defect of Moral Thought.... In 1970s more symptoms were associated with the disorder and this formed a complete spectrum for the disorder. It was in 1980s that the name Adult Deficiency Disorder came into being and was included in the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual III of American Psychiatric Association. In 1987 the name was changed to Adult Deficiency Hyperactivity Disorder and the non stimulant drugs to treat this disorder were introduced in 2003 (Fitzgerald et al 2007; Londrie 2006). Diagnosis The diagnosis of ADHD is based on psychiatric assessment along with a discussion with the peers close to the child. Questionnaires are also used to assess the skills of the child on the basis of which he is diagnosed. It is through these methods that the data is collected and then compared to the standards of Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV) for North America and with International Statistical Classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD 10) for European countries. The sign s and symptoms laid down by ICD and DSM IV are then compared to see if the child is suffering from the problems laid down in it or not (Berger 2008). The sign and symptoms of ADHD are anxiety, irritability, lack of concentration and difficulty in completing organized tasks. The child suffering from ADHD has difficulties in taking his own decision and seeks the help of others in completing the tasks in his life (Whiteman et al 1995; Grosenbach 2000). Bipolar Disorder should be diagnosed properly as at times it gets difficult to differentiate between certain disorders and bipolar disorders. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the disorders which have similar symptoms as Bipolar Disorder. It is necessary for a health

Friday, October 18, 2019

Identify and explain the principal techniques of transfer pricing, and Essay

Identify and explain the principal techniques of transfer pricing, and comment on likely developments in transfer pricing in an era of globalization - Essay Example In contrast, a market price is not determined by an individual but prevails to any participant within a market set-up involving exchange of goods and services between unrelated persons. We note that the market price cannot be tampered with and every person strives to maximize on own gains. Prices within the conventional market scene are determined by forces of market while the transfer prices are determined and set by an individual and thus are not negotiated freely or openly. This implies that transfer prices would often deviate from the conventional market prices within the same or alike market circumstances. It is worth to note that subsidiaries to one enterprise operating within one country face similar operational environment and hence the transfer prices poses similar problems of tax avoidance while compared to subsidiaries operating within different countries. With multinationals running various subsidiaries in different countries, which have different regulatory frameworks, t axation problems through transfer prices are very pronounced. The most prevalent problem with price transfers with multinationals is the tendency of subsidiaries stating inaccurate prices in order to lower profit margins to avoid high taxation. Beside, multinationals manipulate transfer prices through the internal payment networks with the goods they share between one to another. Therefore, the channels adopted within trading transactions by multinational subsidiaries, some price distortions are possible which may not be possible within the uncontrolled trading transactions by unrelated/unaffiliated trading companies. There are a number of principles techniques, which are applied in transfer pricing and which determine the overall outcome in price transfers. The methods of transfer pricing involve ways of calculation of margins of profits of business transactions within an entire business enterprise. However, it is worth

Global Sluggishness Will Slow US Recovery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Global Sluggishness Will Slow US Recovery - Essay Example When I was layoff like many other American workers who have been victims of massive layoffs all across the nation I felt very nervous about the financial well being of me and my family. In the past, I felt the government was never there for me, but the new democratic regime seems to really care about my needs. The fiscal policies of the government are including the proactive measure to help alleviate our problems. For example, as I was receiving unemployment benefits I received a letter from the government that my benefits had been extended by an extra 20 weeks which raised the overall total potential timeline to 59 weeks. Those extra weeks sure provided me with much needed financial relief. A friend told me that I am going to be receiving some extra cash reimbursement from the government after I file my tax returns which were an initiative approved by Obama as part of the stimulus economic package. The money the government spent to help the economy were very large figures which altogether surpassed the trillion dollar mark. It was sure a lot of money, but the catastrophic economic situation justified the decision. First of the banking industry was given over $700 billion dollars. I first I thought that the banks that many times deny you a loan now wants us to give them some free money, but when my brother called me to inform me that his second mortgage loan had been denied I knew that the government needs to do something. My brother always pays his bills on time and he has a good steady job. I was actually going to be the beneficiary of a part-time job from that mortgage loan transaction since his plans were to renovate the home. The CEO of Unity Bank, James A. Hughes said â€Å"The capital raised under the Treasury program".

Competitive Benefits Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Competitive Benefits - Research Paper Example Therefore, this discourse kicks off by analyzing the benefits that come with compensation components and ways in which organizations whose employees are unionized can remain competitive. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employees who are represented by a union receive higher salary as compared to the non- union workers. Moreover, they have more access to various benefits such as medical insurance, despite the declining rate of union membership. Research shows that in the year 2001, only 18 million workers were under a union as compared to 16 million workers in the year 2011. Nevertheless, it is without doubt that unions have an affirmative effect on various aspects of job quality such as employee benefits and wages (Long, 2013). Therefore, this treatise focuses on analyzing how a firm whose workers are represented by a union can remain competitive against the non-unionized workers. It will also give limelight to the role of benefits and the components of an employee benefit package. It is without doubt that compensation benefits play a major role in reducing turnover, enhancing productivity, and increasing the rate of morale among workers. Employee benefits are non-wage compensation that is offered to workers in addition to their normal salaries. For organizations that endeavor to hire competitive workers, they have an attractive benefits package that is either monetary or non-monetary. For instance, the monetary compensation benefits can include bonuses, profit sharing, and stock options among others. There are also the non-monetary benefits such as health insurance, pension plans, disability insurance, paid holidays, educational assistance, flexible working hours, sick leave, work at home oriented programs, retirement plans, and dental insurance among others. It is to be noted that such benefits are paramount in attracting, motivating, rewarding, and retaining workers (Reddick & Coggburn, 2012). Research shows that

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Subscription Television Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Subscription Television - Research Paper Example Other technological devices, Apple TV, Amazon Fire, TV and modern tablets are also becoming key direct competitors (Nikolinakos 67). The second level of competitors includes product category competitors which prove to be more specific. These include basic cable, on demand internet television, satellite television, which comprises of either a dish or a direct TV and finally, video on demand such as VUDU (Cohen 78). The third category of the key competitors comprises of generic competitors such as movies, theatres, online gaming, online plays, videos and concerts. The direct competitors offer clients subscriptions to a desirable number of television channels and unlimited content such as movies. This is the case with streaming video subscriptions. Theses streaming subscriptions have proven to be primary competitors to subscription television considering they offer their clients a diverse range of content which is not limited to television shows. This is likely to make them a preference over subscription television. This has been the case in the recent past as streaming video subscriptions have registered a remarkable percentage of sales. Evidently, the likes of Netflix and Hulu have proved to be primary competitors to subscription television because of the package they offer to clients. In the case of specific competitors, the potential of basic cable television and satellite television, which do not pose subscriptions to the users, offer a measurable level of competition (Grimme 64). These are highly accessible through antennae and may prove to be a preferable choice for some users depending on their television needs. With the increasing access to the internet, a remarkable percentage of the population prefers to watch their favourable television channels online as long as they have an internet connection. With the cheap packages of internet connection, these

Modernism Visual Comical Strips Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Modernism Visual Comical Strips - Research Paper Example The essay "Modernism Visual Comical Strips" discovers modernism and visual comical strips. The modernism arts focused on freedom and individuality as evidence from Pablo Picasso’s art works. Modernism art, therefore, saw the emergence of some new media especially photography thus it emerged during the eras of history of photography and this explains why history records the photographers of 19th century. Modernism also marked the beginning of the new art forms like animation, assemblage, cinematography and even the avant-garde art, including the earliest conceptual art forms and the same style was used on comic strips as the same themes are portrayed in the modernism cartoons and other visual comedy. Style and setting of modernism comical strips used backgrounds that showed how the society evolved to become civilized. In most modernism comedies, the artists used black and white backgrounds to show an evolving society unlike the postmodernist artists that have used technology to affect the backgrounds to the desired colors. On the other hand, most of the modernism comedies centered on war and how servants served their masters. Moreover, modernism visual comedy shows the activities of social organization, architecture, and economic situations in the modernist era that become outdated as industrial revolution took over the world. Post modernism art came about after the emergence of modernism arts and as such, contradicted the aspects of the modernism art. Post modernism in visual art includes general aspects.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Competitive Benefits Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Competitive Benefits - Research Paper Example Therefore, this discourse kicks off by analyzing the benefits that come with compensation components and ways in which organizations whose employees are unionized can remain competitive. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employees who are represented by a union receive higher salary as compared to the non- union workers. Moreover, they have more access to various benefits such as medical insurance, despite the declining rate of union membership. Research shows that in the year 2001, only 18 million workers were under a union as compared to 16 million workers in the year 2011. Nevertheless, it is without doubt that unions have an affirmative effect on various aspects of job quality such as employee benefits and wages (Long, 2013). Therefore, this treatise focuses on analyzing how a firm whose workers are represented by a union can remain competitive against the non-unionized workers. It will also give limelight to the role of benefits and the components of an employee benefit package. It is without doubt that compensation benefits play a major role in reducing turnover, enhancing productivity, and increasing the rate of morale among workers. Employee benefits are non-wage compensation that is offered to workers in addition to their normal salaries. For organizations that endeavor to hire competitive workers, they have an attractive benefits package that is either monetary or non-monetary. For instance, the monetary compensation benefits can include bonuses, profit sharing, and stock options among others. There are also the non-monetary benefits such as health insurance, pension plans, disability insurance, paid holidays, educational assistance, flexible working hours, sick leave, work at home oriented programs, retirement plans, and dental insurance among others. It is to be noted that such benefits are paramount in attracting, motivating, rewarding, and retaining workers (Reddick & Coggburn, 2012). Research shows that

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Modernism Visual Comical Strips Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Modernism Visual Comical Strips - Research Paper Example The essay "Modernism Visual Comical Strips" discovers modernism and visual comical strips. The modernism arts focused on freedom and individuality as evidence from Pablo Picasso’s art works. Modernism art, therefore, saw the emergence of some new media especially photography thus it emerged during the eras of history of photography and this explains why history records the photographers of 19th century. Modernism also marked the beginning of the new art forms like animation, assemblage, cinematography and even the avant-garde art, including the earliest conceptual art forms and the same style was used on comic strips as the same themes are portrayed in the modernism cartoons and other visual comedy. Style and setting of modernism comical strips used backgrounds that showed how the society evolved to become civilized. In most modernism comedies, the artists used black and white backgrounds to show an evolving society unlike the postmodernist artists that have used technology to affect the backgrounds to the desired colors. On the other hand, most of the modernism comedies centered on war and how servants served their masters. Moreover, modernism visual comedy shows the activities of social organization, architecture, and economic situations in the modernist era that become outdated as industrial revolution took over the world. Post modernism art came about after the emergence of modernism arts and as such, contradicted the aspects of the modernism art. Post modernism in visual art includes general aspects.

Why the troop withdrawal timeline is not a good idea Essay Example for Free

Why the troop withdrawal timeline is not a good idea Essay The withdrawal of twenty to forty thousand U.S. troops from Iraq this fall would have a great impact on November elections that are just about to take place. A new Gallup poll just released showed that Bush’s approval rating reached a new low of thirty four percent and that on average his approval rating has been dropping one point a month over the past four years because of this timeline of troop withdrawal. This withdrawal would show progress in the war in Iraq and this will have a great impact in the coming elections on who should take charge to prevent the war. The republicans state that primary goal is to get as many Iraqi soldiers trained as possible so that they can fill in for departing U.S. troops before they can withdraw the U.S. troops from Iraq. The war in Iraq has been a political issue since House and Senate leaders voted on a resolution giving the president license to use force in Iraq just weeks before the 2002 midterm election. Republicans hammered Democrats who opposed the war, as well as their unwillingness to support relaxing labor rules for employees of a newly created Department of Homeland Security. There is a notion if Iraq can forge a truly legitimate state, there is a slight assumption by some that the Iraqis can never match US troops, that training an indigenous force is politically required but operationally suspect. History indicates that counter insurgency operations are more effective if undertaken by local forces and to the degree that the deployment of Iraqi forces reduces American casualties hence it can relieve American domestic political opposition to the war.   Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A US decision to withdraw troops under these conditions would leave an intensely corrupt, divided, dysfunctional and authoritarian regime that would affect Iraq immensely and this would be a loss of confidence to the Democrats on handling the war in Iraq. This would impact the people’s opinion on the coming election of voting for those who do not support the war on the Iraqi. The conventional criteria for the withdrawal of US troops thus come down to the capacity of US trained Iraqis to impose, enforce and maintain security. The U.S should ensure that the timeline of troop withdrawal comes when we have competent, skilled, equipped security-making and security-keeping Iraqi force that will be able to stop the war on Iraq.   Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 2006, the American people elected a Democratic Congress to change course and end this war. It’s the whole reason the American people voted for change. Yet, 10 months after the election, we still have the status quo and Congress has still failed to do the people’s will of stopping the war on Iraq. The Republicans add that a small withdrawal of the surge will not be enough to satisfy anti-war Americans to be able to vote for the Democrats but instead will progress the war. Sectarian violence could erupt on a scale never seen before in Iraq if coalition troops leave before Iraqs security forces are ready. Supporters of al Qaeda could develop an international hub of terror from which to threaten the West.   Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A rapid withdrawal of all U.S. troops would hurt Americas image and hand al Qaeda and other terror groups a propaganda victory that the United States could not be able to stop the war but withdraw its troop. This is a big blow to the democrats especially at this time of the elections drawing near. Sunni Muslim fighters who support al Qaeda would seek an enclave inside a lawless Iraq along sectarian lines into Shiite, Sunni and Kurdish regions hence a threat to terrorism to the Americans. The republicans want to prevent the central and western Iraq from becoming a Sunni militant state that threatens our interests directly as an international terror hub especially for the Americans. There is an increasing attempt by terrorists to establish a training sanctuary in Iraq when the U.S. troops are with drawn from Iraq because the Iraqi troops are not well train to deal with terrorist and hence require more time to be trained well. No one wants an abrupt withdrawal that produces a civil war, a bloodbath, nor a wider war in an unstable Mideast hence until Iraq troops can be able to govern their own states well without the U.S. troops. The politicians do not want a U.S that is perceived as having been badly defeated in the global war on terror or as an unreliable future ally or coalition partner thus they are all up against the withdrawal of the troops until they are confident that no more civil war can take place. This withdrawal timeline is dangerous especially for the political climate that has deep effect for the democrats to take back the position of power through elections. There is also a great anticipation of an increase of both the U.S troops’ left and Iraqi casualties if Iraq’s neighbors would be drawn into the all out civil war likely if U.S. forces left too quickly. Iran could move in to further strengthen its influence in southern Iraq, Turkey likely would move against the Kurds in the north and Saudi Arabia would be inclined to take action to protect Sunnis in western Iraq. There are also fears that an Iraq left without U.S. support could turn into a center for international terrorism and a proxy battlefield for regional powers like Iran, Syria and Saudi Arabia. All the surrounding countries will think their interests are much better maintained not by directly sending troops but by continuing to send money and weapons to the people fighting that war. I think it would cause a huge vacuum that the enemies of Iraq enemies of the government would take advantage because they U.S. will also withdraw all its support to Iraq.   Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The oil sector could also get hit hard, with Iran potentially mining the Persian Gulf and attempting to close the Straits of Hormuz thus putting a stranglehold on oil flow especially to the U.S. who also deeply depend on Iraq for oil. Thus this timeline to withdraw the troop could affect the U.S economy greatly because the oil flow could be greatly affected. Oil prices would go up perhaps changing from current prices of about $60 a barrel to more than $100 a barrel, with consequent rises at the gas pump. Saudi Arabia will not allow increasing Iranian dominance to endanger its regime and oil economy if Iran could strengthen its influence in southern Iraq. The Politicians should use US policy to combat, contain, and roll back the violent activities and destabilizing influence inside Iraq of the Government of Iran.   Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another issues that could be dangerous for U.S interest to withdraw its troop at this time is that the U.S. have spent so much with the deployment of its troop to Iraq and the reconstruction of Iraq after the war. Withdrawing its troop now could be seen as a loss especially to the U.S. economy because they have spent so much money through their troops and in the rebuilding of Iraqi state. If the troops are withdrawn now and the country goes back to war then the U.S would have lost so much resource that they have invested to bring down the Saddam regime to far worse regime. This would be a big blow politically to President Bush for having to fail and the U.S. having lost 264 troops as the highest number of fatalities or military casualties ever in that period and more than double the number of Americans killed in Iraq in summer of 2004 on war. The American will not allow the democrats to take charge and will not vote them in the coming elections. Losing in this war would also mean loss for the Americans and for the Interest of the U.S. government. The other states or nations would also see this as a big blow especially for U.S having to start the war, bringing the Saddam regime down but having to no effort to reconstruct Iraq being a Super power nation. The families who lost their men in the army will also be affected having sacrificed their member and the government not having to accomplish their task of restoring peace but withdrawing their troops where their men dedicated their strength. Lastly this timeline withdrawal is also greatly opposed as politicians also state that the Iraq troops should also be left to form their own government and defend their nation as early as possible because they have been trained and the U.S troops will have to leave at some point. The U.S troops are also blamed to cause this civil war and if withdraw immediately peace will prevail and Iraq government will have to take control and rebuild their nation. This timeline seems dangerous for this political climate due for election hence the troops should not be withdrawn until the Iraqi troop can be able to take full charge of their government. Reference David E Michael R. (2007): Chaos Overran Iraq Plan in 2006, New York Times. Daniel B. and Kenneth P. (2006):- Explosive Affinities. Cross-Border Consequences of Civil Strife, Berlin Journal. Dahl, R. (1998): On Democracy: New Haven: Yale University Press. McKay, D. (1997):- American Politics and Society: Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers. Tocqueville, A. Alfred A (1999): Democracy in America: New York Publishers.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The national curriculum of Indonesia

The national curriculum of Indonesia In the course of history since 1945 (Independence Year), the national curriculum of Indonesia had undergone change several times, namely in 1947, 1952, 1964, 1968, 1975, 1984, 1994, 2004 and the latest curriculum of KTSP 2006 (best understood as School Based Currriculum), those amendments are logically consequences of political issue, government system, social cultural, economic, science and technology change in the living of state community (Soekisno, 2007,). Therefore, the curriculum as a set of educational plans should be developed dynamically in accordance with the demands and changes that occur in society. All Indonesias national curricula were designed based on the same foundation, namely Pancasila (Philosophical foundation of the Indonesian Republic) and the 1945 constitution; the principal differences among those curriculums were only on emphasizing of educational goals and approaches to realize it. Continuing to improve the quality of education in order commensurate with other developing countries, the Indonesian government has made various changes, and continues to review the implementation of education in Indonesia. The National Education Standards of Indonesia (BSNP) had regulated through Government Regulation (PP) No. 19 Year 2005 and set eight contents of the Standards of Education, specifically Content Standard, Standard Process, Graduates Competency Standards, Educators Standards and Education Workforce, Infrastructure Standards , Management Standards, Financial Standards and Evaluation Standards. Simultaneously the Government Regulation No.19 year 2005 affected the direction of Indonesian curriculum development policies to implement its Content Standard (SK) and Graduate Competency Standard (SKL) as established through the Regulation of The Minister of National Education: Number 22, 23, 24 year 2006. These three regulations then further elaborated KTSP (School Based Curriculum) which is built and developed by each educational unit or school in Indonesia. According to Azumardi Azra (2006), explained that the changes in education in Indonesia means that there are two new paradigms emerged in education, shifting the orientation of the policy where previously being centralized to decentralized, then national education is more oriented to the learning process rather than results. Decentralized system means to implement the new breakthrough School-Based Curriculum known as KTSP in Indonesia. Change of curriculum had affected the national education system of Indonesia; it had not only affected the learning climate in the classroom, but the readiness of the principal and subject teachers in efforts to understand and apply the curriculum in practice. In addition, Sutrisno and Nuryanto (2008) viewed that the implementation has not been optimally practiced as educational practitioners think KTSP differs with KBK. Meanwhile Suhadi (2006) argued that such an assumption was due to a prior attitudes and psychological resistance against the changes. The changes enhanced the operational practice of curriculum which are developed and implemented by each school consisting of their own respective goals, local content perspectives, educational calendar and syllabus. KTSP which was being mandated by the Ministry of National Education Indonesia (MoNE) through The National Education Standard Institution (BSNP) means to reinforce the implementation of its predecessor (read: KBK), it implies that KTSP still put pressure on developing students competencies. According to Fasli and Bachruddin (2007) said that KTSP implementation will not be undergoing a public test, because this curriculum had been tested through KBK which was being applied by several schools in a pilot project before the birth of KTSP. This is then a following-up toward curriculum change in the context of regional autonomy and decentralization of education programmed by the government of Indonesia. The implementation of this curriculum is focused on three dimensions of students enrichment of knowledge (cognitive), attitude formation (affective) and behavior (psychomotor). Under KTSP the school and teacher have the authority to decide the educational goals based on their own schools perspective, in other words, teacher have duties on: (1) constructing and formulating the proper goal, (2) choosing and constructing the right lesson material according to the needs, interest and childrens development phase, (3) using various methods and teaching media, (4) and constructing the program and the right evaluation. A curriculum should be made systematically and detail, which will help the teachers in its implementation. However, KTSP faces major challenges related to integration of local information, national, and international. Combining these integrations may only be solved by having resources which are prepared ahead of time, not by the teachers who prepared instantly through a variety of curriculum development assistance programs. It is more dangerous if the schools eventually just offered cheat or trace the guidelines offered by National Education Standard (BSNP). If so, KTSP will create the instant schools and result in stunted creativity, contrary to the mandate of the KTSP. Some of the reasons behind the needs for this research include (a) KTSP implementation needs to be evaluated simultaneously in qualitative and quantitative terms; and (b) the results of that evaluation can be made as the basic information for all policy decisions related to educational elements in Riau Province especially at Indragiri Hilir Regency. Research Problem However, having been launched on 2006, there were many issues discussed by experts and parties whose responsible for education, particularly in the implementation of School Based Curriculum (KTSP) which has inadequate human resources whose capable to interpret even elaborate it into the practice of educational unit , incompleteness of the supporting facilities of its implementation, the teachers do not understand KTSP as a whole, both in terms of concept and its implementation in schools and even still busy using the previous theory in the process of teaching and learning in classroom. In accordance with the principal of KTSP, all levels and types of education in Indonesia must develop their own curriculum based on their potential areas and students. This is supported by Minister of National Education Regulation No. 22 of 2006 on the Content Standards, as well as Minister of National Education Regulation No. 23 of 2006 on Graduates Competency Standards (SKL); these regulations mandate to the schools in order being required to prepare their own curriculum. However, this policy is not accompanied by teachers readiness or even understanding. These generate confusion among them while applying the KTSP. As informed by Curriculum Center 2010, the monitoring noticed the implementation of KTSP has been conducted mostly in large areas, although majority of them still adopting from existing model of curriculum. Hopefully, with technical assistances undertaken by various parties will ensure the success of its development and help improve understanding of the concept and philosophy, and encourage them to develop the curriculum based on their respective conditions. Various obstacles occurred during realizing the empowerment of schools and KTSP. First, lack of ability is the main construct, developing of staffs members capabilities while providing technical assistance to particular regions could lead them to learn by doing. The instability of funding for the dissemination and socialization of KTSP causes the Curriculum Center to experience substantial cost-cutting measures; it impacts the perfect planning that has been initially organized became severely hampered in its implementation and also creates distrust between local education authorities and Curriculum Center. But the best spirit in welcoming this new curriculum to be highly efficacious for the Curriculum Center to do the best in accordance with the appropriate quality needs, potentials and regional particularities. Therefore, any problems arise due to the implementation of KTSP supposed to comprise more serious concern of Indonesian Government, especially Indonesian Ministry of National Education. The aspects to be considered include the following: Improving teachers quality and understanding toward relevant concepts of KTSP implementation. Providing such of facilities and infrastructure that can support the successful of KTSP implementation. Simultaneously help every educational unit in developing KTSP. Evaluating its process at provincial level to local district and regions. Whatever the responses from the concerning person/social in regard to the implementation of KTSP, school and teacher are the central to implement this school based curriculum; they themselves have the potential to overcome any weaknesses occurring, if not it will be in vain. As suggested by Nana (2001) no matter on how good the curriculum, the results are highly dependent on what is being done by teachers and pupils in the classroom. It means the success of education through curriculum reformation will ultimately be determined by the teacher as an executor of the curriculum, and school as a learning provider. Research Objectives This study aims to see how the implementation of School-Based Curriculum (KTSP) is carried out in Junior High Schools and Senior High Schools as well as Madrasah at Riau province Indonesia. Specifically it will be conducted in one part of Riau Province namely Indragiri Hilir Regency. Particularly the objective of this study is to assess the status of KTSP implementation in the dimensions of context, input, process and product (CIPP model by Daniel Stufflebeam). To figure out the extent to which KTSP has been implemented in High Schools and Madrasah To investigate the complexities of its implementation during 4 years running To find out the supporting facilities provided by national and local government in its implementation Overall purpose of this study is to see the implementation of the KTSP in terms of context, input, process and product. Significance of the Study The result of this study will give some of practical benefits as follows: The policy recommendations to Indonesian Ministry of Education (especially for Indragiri Hilir Ministry of Education) based on the objectives data that will be resulted at the end of the study. Information to the public (stakeholder and parents) For basic development of relevant curriculum materials accordance with local potentials and teacher competency standard. As reference to the theoretical basis for the development of KTSP paradigm based on schools potential needs on respect to its planning, implementation, and evaluation. Research Questions In overall objectives, this study will formulate the research questions based on the evaluation model of curriculum developed by Stufflebeam (1972); those are Context, Input, Process and Product. Thus the research questions are formulated as the following: Dimension of Context How do the English teachers at Indragiri Hilir Regency develop their own curriculum based on schools desires, students needs and local needs? How do they implement and integrate all aspects of KTSP into their lesson plan and teaching? Dimension of Input How does the Indragiri Hilir Education Ministry assist the schools in developing their teachers capability in implementing KTSP? Dimension of Process How is the implementation of KTSP in Junior High School, Senior High Schools and Madrasah at Indragiri Hilir Regency Riau? How do they (Schools and teachers) evaluate its implementation? Dimension of Product How are the results of KTSP implementation? What is the effect of KTSP implementation on students competence in English (Impact of teachers creativities in designing their own curriculum development) CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Literature Review As the latest curriculum on 2006 which is derived from KBK (CBC-Competence-Based Curriculum, 2004), KTSP becomes a new breakthrough in the history of Indonesian education curriculum, which to progress its development to down-top approach. Contextually, KTSP develop by any groups or committees of the education unit or school/madrasah those under coordination and supervision of the National Indonesian Education Ministry and Local Indonesian Education Ministry. It emphasizes on developing the ability to perform competences and tasks with specific standards, so the results affect the students on mastery of a set of specific knowledge competencies, and values used in many fields of life. Indeed, KTSP is the curriculum that reflects the knowledge, skills and attitudes and also refers to the concept of education in turning to improve students potentialities. Moreover, according to historical records, following the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, the Dutch language was replaced by English as the first foreign language, and has been recognized as such in Indonesia since 1955 (Alisjabana, 1976; de Han, 2003 as cited in Mochtar Marhum, n.d.). Since the 1980s, English has been considered to be the most important foreign language in Indonesia. The governments and communitys interest in English has been growing since the early 1990s (Alwasilah, 1997). This position of English can be traced from government documents on the results of Parliaments meetings. In the GBHN (The Guidelines of the State Policy) 1983 and 1988, foreign language policy was not incorporated. However, in the GBHN 1993, the policy on foreign languages, particularly English, was clearly stipulated. The policy related to the use and mastery of English. In 1988, Government Regulation No. 55, 56 and 57/1988 changing Government Regulation No. 28, 29/990 was introduced. It confirmed the use of English in schools. Moreover, Government Regulation of No 57/1957/1988 confirmed the use of English as a foreign language and as a means of communication in the university. Subsequently, it was incorporated into Government Regulation No 60/1999 on the use of English in all higher education. Alwasilah (1997) suggested that the need for mastery of English in the globalization era was absolutely necessary. In addition, it would be ideal if the mastery of English became the mastery of second language (p. 89). Yet, the uniqueness of this KTSP hopefully brings the new education model to the success of Indonesian education. The development of a KTSP is a new phenomenon for the school community in Indonesia, consequently, in the early stage of its implementation some obstacles were found in a number of schools. The freedom of schools to create their own curriculum which is relevant with the needs of students cannot be fully implemented (Harry Burhanudin, 2008). The general model of it which is being developed as a model and fully adopted by a number of schools has tended to cause a similar curriculum among schools as to what was being implemented in the centralistic era. The change in the role of schools from curriculum implementer to curriculum developer has made the school community confused. The capacity of school community to analyze the conditions and needs of the students and implement them in school curriculum needs to be further improved. Therefore, school assistance through professional development programs provided for the head teachers and teachers in the context of this kind of school based curriculum is still considered important for several years to come. In line with the school assistance, capacity building of the educational management in autonomous regions (regency/municipality) managing the curriculum development still remains to be completed A number of studies have been carried out to investigate KTSP implementation; a study conducted in 2008 in Jambi province of Indonesia revealed (Sutrisno Nuryanto, 2008) that KTSP to all levels (Elementary Schools, Junior and Senior High Schools) having less applicable in term of (a) KTSP developmental preparation, (b) syllabus development, (c) teachers self development, (d) integrated learning, (e) local content development, (f) outcomes assessment, and (g) report process (p. 27). As such the issue above, implementation in this context leads to the true readiness of Jambi province in anticipating of changes toward educational paradigm from a previously centralized to decentralized model. For example, KTSP which was launched in late 2006 gave more emphasis on school autonomy through developing their own curriculum according to local needs and wisdom. This means Indonesian curricula is no longer centralized nationally and it is mandated under Indonesian Regulation No. 22 legislated in 1999 by the republic of Indonesia (R.I). Regarding local government, decentralization implies that the authority to implement and manage education shall be transferred from the national government to local districts or municipal government levels. At this point Sutrisno and Nuryanto (1998) also asserted that the teachers rules as facilitator in KTSP elements have not been working as the schools and committees expectations. Furthermore, on different angle was reported as in the following: The real condition shows that the paradigm shift is not necessarily accompanied by better result. A number of problems still advance in Jambi while on level of provinces, cities and countries. First, not all sectors which are directed to educational policy have human resources competent to formulate the technical policy and its implementation. Second, the increasingly of dominant political intervention in determining of policy and implementation, contextually in line with the trend of autonomy, bureaucratic chain is very closely possible to having dominantly power to education. (Sutrisno Nuryanto, 1998 p. 24). In a sense, it is important to consider the argument rose on where the KTSP developed, Endo viewed from this perspective that KTSP is similar to the concept of School-Based Curriculum Development (SBCD) in Australia which had begun to set on the mid-1970s, the discourse was in essence of giving more freedom in determining the curricula by the schools members (Endo, 1997). SBCD has several characteristics that are generally similar to SBC development in Indonesia, proved on through the participation of teachers, participation of the whole or part of school staffs; range of activities including selection (choice of a number of alternative curriculum), adaptation (modification of existing curriculum), and creation (designing a new curriculum); responsibilities transformation from centralist to decentralist (not terminating of responsibilities) and a continuation process among the community and stake-holders (to assist teachers and schools). Other studies have indicated, however, Indonesian KTSP is not derived from SBCD in Australia. Wachyu (2009) argued KTSP is having the differentials factors from SBCD in Australia, KTSP is an integrated curriculum combining between the Top-Down and Bottom-Up approach that was being confirmed in USPN (Legislation of Indonesian National Education Standard) on chapter X, article 36 and 37. USPN revealed that Indonesian curriculum development is based on National Education Standard (SNP) and considerately pay attention on learners potential diversities, schools diversities and local needs. Chapter 38 also states that the structure and framework of the curriculum of primary and secondary schools are determined by the government. Therefore, KTSP was divided into core (subjects tested nationally) and local subjects that are developed by each educational unit based on the assessment of its potential, including the content to develop learners personality and potential based on his interest in the form of extra-curricular activities. While SBCD in Australia tend to apply bottom-up approach, the entire process and the stages of curriculum based on the potential school. As confirmed by Skillbeck (1991) that School based curriculum is a process when some or all members of a school take part on planning, implementation, and evaluation on the aspects or elements of the curriculum (Sklill beck, 1991, as cited in Wachyu, 2009, p. 2). Decentralized curriculum; such of designing, implementing and controlling (evaluation and improvement) carried out through locally by each educational unit, teachers who design its curriculum working together with experts, schools committee/madrasah and others part of society. KTSP development could include all components of the curriculum or some only, instead of compilation can be done by a group or all teachers with regard to the needs of each school in accordance with the conditions in each educational unit or its surrounding communities. KTSP will be more meaningful because of the different situations in a certain local condition that lead to the fulfillment of needs, demands and local development. It will produce a variety of design but is easier to understand, master and implement by teachers by virtue of their involvement in expanding KTSP. Particularly the center of curriculum by Indonesian Education Ministry (2007) has pointed out also the advantages and its shortcomings, the advantages are taking on (a) KTSP is accordance with the needs, conditions, and on diversities which every local communities have, auto assist in developing society, (b) easier to carry out due to the designs that have been prepared by teachers considering the local factors that really support to develop. Instead, it has also several shortcomings, (a) not all teachers have the expertise or skills in curriculum development then, not every local schools have the teachers or an expert that proficiently in developing such of it, (b) with content being localized, the graduate can have lack of ability to participate in national competitiveness, (c) various designs that lead to the complexity of monitoring and evaluating in term of national learning outcomes, (d) transferring students from certain schools to another schools can cause difficulties (Cente r for the Development of Curriculum, 2007). Listen Read phonetically Recent reports have noted, 60 English teachers from junior and senior high schools spread of 24 regencies and cities in West Java Indonesia were being selected, most teachers who participated in this study had trained and socialized about KTSP (Wachyu Sundayana, 2009). Wachyu explored the research questions on (a) How are English teachers understanding about KTSP, (b) How are their perceptions on the development of KTSP, (c) What complexities were raising during implementing and developing its curriculum. This study showed the development of KTSP in every unit of education especially junior high schools and MTs (Madrasah) in West Java is still not in line with the stages of development as suggested in the guidelines of BSNP (Institution of National Education Standard). Data collection showed most teachers (74%) know what KTSP was, but they were not clear to what function they have in practice, implement and develop KTSP; for the same reason Faizah and Ismono investigated the readiness of chemistry teachers in Bangkalan district of Madura and found that Chemistry teachers from five schools were not ready to apply, the percentage just reached on 60% (Faizah Ismono, 2008, as cited in Yuli Eko Siswono, n.d). Simultaneously with the finding of Wachyu Sundayana study, the complexities on its implementation concluded as follows: (a) lack of supporting facilities of the schools, (b) incompleteness of KTSP guidance received by teachers, (c) KTSP guideline was not detailed and clear, (d) teachers understanding on KTSP documents. These data are consistent with the finding of research conducted by Miftahul Jannah (2008) showing teachers abilities are low in developing syllabus and lesson plan; most of respondents (75%) stated about their inabilities in developing syllabus but just copying and duplicating the examples from BSNP without having a preliminary investigation throughout students potentials and schools needs. Most of interviewing respondents admit to their complexities in making a good syllabus and lesson plan lines with the students and schools needs. This fact showed that teachers having many difficulties in developing varieties stages on KTSP (Miftahul Jannah, 2008, as cited in Wachy u Sundayana, 2009. p. 7). Regarding Riau province, whole schools on current educational year 2009/2010 are progressing to adapt KTSP, such socialization have always done, it felt as complexity because the entire process of transforming from being centralize to decentralized was not much understand by some teachers, referring to the function of teachers on KTSP, teachers are together with schools members to develop KTSP based on students potential and local needs (UUD No. 20 year 2003/article 37). In fact, it is of utmost importance to examine what we could learn from prior and present efforts to bring about the strategies that are currently progressed by BSNP to help every educational unit in developing its curriculum. Harianti (2008) explained although the authority of national curriculum development has changed, it is not making a sense for curriculum center to lose their jobs, the task change progressively to assist schools to prepare their own respective curricula. Furthermore, Harianti pointed out the job responsibility does not seem to be easy where there are a large number of schools in Indonesia contains 43.461 (elementary schools), 12.731 (junior high schools), 4.499 (senior high school) and 2.655 (vocational high schools), yet, not including Early Childhood education, Extraordinary Schools and Madrasah (Harianti, 2008). It does not allow for curriculum center helps one by one, there should be a strategy then schools can develop their own curricula. The expectation is that they can develop a curriculum, becoming true backbone in improving local human resources through education in national or even in international competitiveness. Empowering the schools and community in developing KTSP done through a technical assistance, both at the provincial level as well as at the level of district/city, at the provincial level expected to present a TPK (Curriculum Development Team) whose responsibility to provide the information and give assistance on the development of KTSP to TPK at the district level. Empowering at the provincial level such as Riau is concentrated in the area of curriculum development till the teams performing evaluation and monitoring its implementation based on their own respective regions, beside at the district level is concentrated on the ability of the team to perform in school curriculum development assistance. KTSP where commonly known as school based curriculum gone to be discussed for a long, the broad study of Marsh Collin (1990) on their final finding of School based curriculum development had suggested through sub of specifics SBCD issues: The key actors involved in political decisions about schooling in their respective countries tend to use several terms to describe or promote their efforts. Such term include quality of schooling, school-improvement, school-focused improvement, self-managing school, and many others. Be that as it may, there are a number of interesting issues about SBCD and (its synonyms) which are currently of considerable interest and are likely to remain so in the immediate future. They include: The role of parents and students in decision making Financial management by schools Professional development for teachers Teacher appraisal School evaluation Pressure of tightening central control (Marsh Colin, 1990, pp. 206-207) The Curriculum center in its official website released about the uniqueness of KTSP implementation in term of diversity of schools needs, although the two junior high schools are located in the adjacent neighborhood both were very much different in term of pupils conditions. The A school whose current learners come from upper and middle class of socio-economic level had high academic achievement; all of them want to continue on to university. On the other hand, the B school where the majority of learners come from disadvantaged of socio-economic groups planned to graduate soon and earning money is a primary goal of schooling. Both of these two schools will develop a very different curriculum. School A will focus on studies with higher order thinking that enables learners to have high academic thinking in leading them to continue university, while school B will enrich the subjects with several activities that cultivate the skills to work so that learners feel a sense of great benefici al skills after graduating from school B. Many researchers have investigated KTSP, Specifically on its implementation, based on the reviewing above some researchers had focused on the effectiveness on its evaluation based on the real phenomenon which occurred in the real situation of the schools, the writer although cannot find the way of their investigation by using several methods of curriculum evaluation models, where known on several studies like Glatthorn Allan, Floyd Bruce (2006) studied in their books that curriculum evaluation should be concerned with assessing the value of a program studies, a field of studies, and a course of study, furthermore, they argued of all these three levels of curriculum work are important. Hereafter, the evaluation models of curriculum as best known are practical such as: Tylers Objectives-Centered Model, Stufflebeams Context-Input-Process-Product Model, Scrivens Goal-Free Model, Stakes Responsive Model and Eisners Connoisseurship Model (Glatthorn, Floyd Bruce, 2006 pp. 302-306). For further study, the writer will focus on the evaluation model developed by Stufflebeams on Context-Input-Process-Product Model 1971. The context-input-process-product (abbreviated as CIPP) model, has several attractive features, namely: its emphasis on decision making seems appropriate for administrators concerned with improving curricula, its concern for the formative evaluation remedies. However the CIPP model has some associated drawbacks; its main weaknesses seems to be its failure to recognize the complexity of the decision making process in organizations. It assumes more rationality than exists in such situations and ignores the political factors that play a large part in these decisions (Glatthorn et al., 2006). Definition of the Terms Several operational definitions used by the researcher to conduct and focus on this study are as follows: Curriculum The original derivation of the word curriculum is from the Latin verb currere, to run; curriculum, a diminutive form, came to mean a racing chariot or race track (David Pratt, 1994, p. 5). Curriculum also can be defined as prescriptive, descriptive, or both. Ellis explained that Prescriptive definitions provide us with what ought to happen, and they more often than not to take the form of plan, an intended program, or some kind of expert opinion about what needs to take place in the course of study (Glatthorn et al., 2006, pp . 3-5). According to the Indonesian Institution of National Education Standards (2006) curriculum is a set of plans and rules about the goals, content, teaching materials, and the methods used to guide the implementation of instructional activities on achieving certain educational goals, its certain goals include the national education goals in accordance with the local potential