Monday, September 30, 2019

Marketing Management Assignment-Smu Essay

Q.1 A. Explain the six criteria for effective market segmentation * Identity – The marketing manager must have some means of identifying members of the segment i.e., some basis for classifying an individual as being or not being a member of the segment. There must be clear differences between segments. Members of such segments can be readily identified by common characteristics as they display similar behavior. * Accessibility – It must be possible to reach the different segments in regard to both promotion and distribution. ln other words, the organisation must be able to focus its marketing efforts on the chosen segment. Segments must be accessible in two senses. First, firms must be able to make segmented customers aware of products or services. Second, they must get products to them through the distribution system at a reasonable cost. * Responsiveness — A clearly defined segment must react to changes in any of the elements of the marketing mix. For example. if a particular segment is defined as being cost-conscious, it should react negatively to price rises. If it does not, this is an indication that the segment needs to be redefined. * Size – The segment must be reasonably large to be a profitable target. Lt depends upon the number of people in it and their purchasing power. For example, makers of luxury goods may appeal to small but wealthy target markets whereas makers of cheap consumption goods may sell to a large but relatively poor target markets. * Nature of demand — lt refers to the different quantities demanded by various segments. Segmentation is required only if there are market differentiation in terms of demand. The marketing manager should not only be able to find out the total demand and the differences in demand patterns in each of these segments. * Measurability — The purpose of segmentation is to measure the changing behavioural pattern of consumers. For example, the segment of a market for a car is determined by a number of considerations, such as economy, status, quality, safety, comforts, etc. B. Discuss the types of target marketing strategies. * Undifferentiated marketing strategy or mass marketing strategy In the absence of a proper mechanism to classify the market into a number of markets segments and analyse their potential, many firms decide on the mass marketing strategy. In this case, the marketer goes against the idea of a differentiated market and decides to sell the product to the whole market. Here the marketing manager ignores the idea of segment characteristics and differences, and develops a unified marketing programme for the entire market. This strategy keeps the overall marketing costs low and makes it easier to manage and track the market forces uniformly. The marketer tries to find out commonalities across various segments rather than focusing on the differences between segments. * Concentrated marketing strategy In the second alternative strategy, the marketing manager decides to enter into a selected market segment instead of all the available market segments. When resources and market access are limited and the company has to face intense competition, the marketing manager has to stretch the budget for market coverage. In this case, the company is likely to follow the concentrated marketing strategy. * Differentiated marketing strategy Many marketers choose to target several segments or niches with a differentiated marketing offer to suit each market segment. Maruti is the leading automobile company, which has the distinction of having different products for different market segments. Q.2 Explain the consumer buying decision process. * Problem recognition A buying process starts when a consumer recognizes that there is a substantial discrepancy between his/her current state of satisfaction and expectations in a consumption situation. A need can be activated through internal or external stimuli. The basic needs of common men rise to a particular level and become a drive. From their previous experiences, they know how to satisfy these needs like hunger, thirst, sex, etc. This is a case of internal stimulus. A need can also be aroused by an external stimulus such as sighting a new product in a shop while purchasing other usual products. * Information search After need arousal, the behaviour of the consumer leads towards collection of available information about various stimuli. ln this case, information about products and services are gathered from various sources for further processing and decision-making. The first source of consumer information is the internal source. This means the consumer first search the information regarding the relevant product from his/her inner memory. If the information is not available from internal source for making a purchase decision he or she may collect information from external sources. A External sources for desired information can be grouped into four categories. * Personal sources (family, friends, neighbors, and peer group) * Commercial sources or market dominated sources (advertisements, salesmen, dealers, and company owned sales force) * Public sources (mass media, consumer rating organisations, and trade association publications) * Experiential sources (handling, examining, and using the product) The marketer will find it worthwhile to study the consumers’ information sources when: * A substantial percentage of the target market engages in the search * The target market shows some stable patterns of using the respective information sources. * Alternative evaluation Once interest in a product(s) is aroused, a consumer enters the subsequent stage of evaluation of alternatives. Evaluation leads to formation of buying intention that can be to either purchase or reject the product/brand. The final purchase will however depend on the strength of the positive-intention, which is the intention to buy. * Purchase decision Finally the consumer arrives at a purchase decision. Purchase decisions can be any one of the three – no buying, buying later, and buy now. No buying takes the consumers to the problem recognition stage as their consumption problem is not solved and they may again get involved in the process as we have explained. A postponement of buying can be due to a lesser motivation or evolving personal and economic situation that forces the consumer not to buy now or postponement of purchase for future period of time. If positive attitudes are formed towards the decided alternative, the consumer will make a purchase. * Post-purchase behaviour Post-purchase behaviour refers to the behaviour of consumers after their commitment to a product has been made. It originates out of consumers’ experience regarding the use of the product and is indicated in terms of satisfaction. This behaviour is reflected in repeated purchases or abstinence from further purchase. A satisfied product-use experience leads to repeated purchase, referrals from satisfied customers to new customers, higher usage rate, and also brand advocacy. Q.3 A. Discuss the Henry Assael model on buying decision behaviour. Henry Assael has come up with an explanation to analyse why consumers buy the goods they buy. He explained the relationship between the level of involvement by the consumers in the purchase of goods and services and the level at which diverse goods or services differ from one another. High involvement Low Involvement Signiï ¬ cant differences Complex Variety Seeking between brands Buying Behaviour Buying Behaviour Few differences Dissonance Reducing Habitual Buying between brands Buying Behaviour * Complex buying behaviour — Consumers are highly involved in a purchase and aware of significant differences among brands. This is usually the case when the product is expensive, bought infrequently, risky, and highly self-expressive. Typically the consumers don’t know much about the product category and have more to learn. Example: personal computer. * Dissonance-reducing — sometimes, the consumer is highly involved in a purchase but sees little differences in the brands. The high involvement is based on the fact that the purchase is expensive, infrequent, and risky. Example: carpet. After purchasing the carpet, consumers might experience dissonance that stems from noticing certain disquieting features of the carpet or hearing favorable things about other carpets. * Habitual buying behaviour – Many products are bought under conditions flow consumer involvement and the absence of significant brand differences. Considering salt, consumers have little involvement in this product category. They go to the store and reach for a brand. If they keep reaching for the same brand, it is out of habit and not strong brand loyalty. * Variety-seeking buying – Some buying situations are characterized by low consumer involvement but significant brand differences. Here consumers often do a lot of brand switching. Consumers do the brand switching for the sake of variety rather than dissatisfaction. Example: wafer potato chips. B. Explain the five stages of Adoption Process. * Awareness – During the first stage of adoption process, the product innovation is explained to the consumers. This process gives information about the new product or service. * Interest – When consumers develop an interest in the product or product category, they search for information about how the innovation can benefit them. * Evaluation – The evaluation stage represents a kind of ‘mental trial’ of the product innovation. Only if the consumers’ evaluation of the innovation is satisfactory, they will actually try the product. In case the evaluation is unsatisfactory, the product is automatically rejected. * TriaI- ln this stage- consumers use the product on a limited basis. Their experience with the product provides them with the critical information that they need to adopt or reject it. * Adoption -In this stage, consumers decide to make full and regular use of the product. Q.4 Describe the components of the micro environment of marketing * The company Some company factors that affect the marketing decisions are: Culture and value system — Organizational culture can be viewed as the system of shared values and beliefs that shape a company’s behavioural norms. A value. is an enduring preference as a mode of conduct or an end state. The value system of the founders of the organisation has a lasting impact on it. The value system not only influences the working of the company and the attitude of its people but also the choice of its business. 1. Mission and objectives — The mission and objectives of the company guide the priorities, direction of development, business philosophy, and business policy. 2. Management structure and nature – Structure is the manner in which the tasks and sub-tasks of the organisation are related. Structure is concerned with the hierarchical relationship and the relationship between the management of different functional areas like the structure of the top management and the pattern of share holding. 3. Human resource – This concerns factors like manpower planning, recruitment and selection, compensation, communication, and appraisal. * Intermediaries intermediaries are independent business units and they carry the company’s products and services to the customers. Prominent intermediaries include wholesalers, retailers, merchants, selling agents, brokers, etc. Their objective of being in business is different than being in a firm, so the intermediaries will be interested in maximizing their profits. Any trade promotion scheme will motivate them to push competitors’ product deeper and faster. * Public Positive and favorable public opinion is crucial to marketing success since the public is the authority that permits the existence and operation of competitive marketing systems. This environmental factor includes the general public, its support, the government, and the set of public who have a direct bearing on business. These public can be classified as welcome public, sought public, and unsought public. As a marketer, one must understand that the general public grants the license for conducting business with an expectation that the company will practice fair play. Lack of this supportive framework as evidenced by declining sales or adverse public opinion can lead to eventual failure of the firm as well as the marketing system. * Competitors Success or failure of an offer largely depends on how competitors react to the company‘s offer. Godrej was a successful refrigerator manufacturer. Once competition intensified, the company started losing market share. Today, though there is a growth in refrigerator industry, Godrej as a brand is not growing as fast as its competitors. Through the years, marketing systems have become increasingly competitive. Traditional economic analysis, views competition as a battle between companies in the same industry or between substitutable products. Marketers, however, tend to accept the argument that all firms are competing for a limited discretionary buying power. Though we can say that Maruti as a car manufacturing-company is facing competition from other car manufacturers, ultimately it is the consumer’s disposable income for which shampoos, soaps, and scooters are also competing with Maruti. A customer is expected to allocate his disposable income optimally and in the process a category also competes with another category to be in the active consideration set of customers for such an allocation. Industry has found numerous new uses for existing products, with the whole arena of competition being expanded. While this forces business to reassess long-established marketing practices, it also opens new avenues of business opportunity. Emergence of computers with multimedia as a tool of infotainment and knowledge sharing device has challenged traditional products in the entertainment market. * Suppliers Increase in the price of raw materials will have a bang on effect on the marketing mix strategy of an organisation. As a result, the prices may be forced up. This is the impact that the suppliers can have. Closer relationship with suppliers is one way of ensuring competitive and quality products for an organisation. * Customers Organisations exist because of customers. No customer means, no business. Organizations on how they meet the needs and wants of the customers and provide them with maximum benefits. Failure to do so will result in a failed business strategy. Q.5 A. Explain the types of Marketing Information systems MIS supplies three types of information, which are: * Monitoring information – Monitoring information is the information obtained from scanning external sources which include newspapers, trade publications, technical journals, magazines, directories, balance sheets of companies, and syndicated and published research reports. Data are captured to monitor changes and trends related to marketing situation. Some of these data can be purchased at a price from commercial sources such as market research agencies or from government sources. * Recurrent information — Recurrent information is the information that is generated at regular intervals like monthly sales reports; the stock statements, the trial balance, etc. ln MlS, recurrent information is the data that MIS supplies at a weekly, monthly, quarterly, or annual interval, which are made available regularly. It can also provide information on customer awareness of company’s brands, advertising campaigns, and similar data on close competitors. * Customized information — Customized information is also called problem-related, which is developed in response to some speciï ¬ c requirements related to a marketing problem or any particular data requested by a manager. B. Discuss the different components of MIS The overall Objective of an Ml IS to provide inputs from marketing environmental factors like target markets, marketing channels, competitors, consumers, and other forces for creating, changing, and modifying marketing decisions in the formulation of relevant and competitive marketing strategies. * Internal record systems — Internal record systems are available within the company across various departments and provide relevant, routine information for making marketing decisions. The most evident internal record system is the purchase and payment cycle systems. It records the timing and size of orders placed by consumers, the payment cycles followed by consumers, and the time taken to fulfill the orders in the shortest possible time. * Marketing intelligence system – A marketing intelligence system is the system of collecting and collating data. This system tries to capture relevant data from the external environment. It collects and manages data from the external enviro nment about the competitors’ moves, government regulations, and other relevant information having a direct impact on the marketing environment of the firm. *Analytical marketing systems – Analytical marketing systems are also known as Marketing Decision Support Systems (MDSS). A MDSS is a coordinated collection of data, systems, tools, and techniques with supporting software and hardware. Using this collection, an organisation gathers and interprets relevant information from business and environment and turns it into a basis for marketing action. lt involves problem-solving technology consisting of people, knowledge, software, and hardware integrated through the information technology platform into the sales management process of the organisation. * Marketing research systems – Marketing research systems are based on systems and processes that help marketing managers to design, collect, analyse, and report data and ï ¬ ndings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company. It also involves analysis of information, which includes a coordinated collection of data, systems, tools, and techniques with supporting software, and hardware by which an organisation gathers and interprets the relevant data and turns it into a basis for marketing action and tactics. Q.6 Describe the factors to be considered while developing an Effective marketing mix. To develop an effective marketing mix the company should consider the following factors and then choose the most appropriate mix of elements (7Ps) to target the customers: * Company’s resources – These are one of the prime factors affecting the company’s marketing mix. The financial, human, and technological resources available with the company affect the composition of the marketing mix. The firm needs to conduct a Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis for the business unit. * Demographics — It implies to the changes in the composition of the market, the demand of the population, the opportunities in the country, etc. that affect the marketing mix. Current and projected economic conditions – It connotes the economic factors like inflation, employment, taxes, and other economic factors that influence marketing mix decisions. * Market potential – Analysis of market potential for new products considers market growth, prospect’s need for your offering, the beneï ¬ ts of the offering the number of barriers to immediate use, the credibility of the offering and the impact on the customer’s daily operations. * Competitors – They are important considerations that affect the marketing mix of a firm as the potential for competitive retaliation is based on the competitor’s resources, commitment to the industry, cash position, predictability, and status of the market. Porter’s Five Forces Model * Supplier power- The power of suppliers to drive up the prices of inputs. – * Buyer power- The power of customers to drive ‘down products’ prices. * Competitive rivalry — The strength of competition in the industry. * Threat of substitution – The extent to which different products and services can be used in place of a particular product. * Threat of new entry — The ease with which new competitors can enter the market if they see that a product is making good proï ¬ t and then drive your prices down. By thinking about how each force affects a product and by identifying the strength and direction of each force, you can quickly assess the strength of a product’s position and ability to make a sustained proï ¬ t in the industry.

Macbeth Ambition Essay

English Assignment – Term 3 Representations of ambition within Macbeth Within Macbeth, there are numerous representations of human values and conflicts, including duty vs. desire, the effects of a guilty conscience on the human journey and the differences between genders, and the superiority of men within the play, and the modern era. The value foregrounded throughout this text is the representations of ambition within the play Macbeth, and we will be focusing on the protagonist of the story, ironically named Macbeth. The effect of ambition can be a double-edged sword. Ambition can provide a person with desire, so that they can accomplish goals, and give them a kick-start towards them. On the other hand, however, ambition can transition into what’s known as vaulting ambition, which can be defined as pursuing your ambitions without taking into consideration the consequences that comes with it, and hypothetically ‘vaulting’ over the boundaries set. The protagonist within the play, Macbeth, exemplifies the act of ‘vaulting ambition’, and it is mentioned once within the play. ‘The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o’erleap, for in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires. The eye wink at the hand; yet let that be which the eye fears, when it is done, to see.’ Macbeth’s inner desires are reignited after the battle, when he arranges to meet with the three witches on the heath. The witches proclaim and prophesize that Macbeth will not only hold his position as Thane of Glamis, but also be crowned Thane of Cawdor, and eventually, the King of Scotland, though they do not say how. If Macbeth decides to seek his ambitions, that have now been reminded to him by the witches’ foresights, it would mean that he would have to eradicate the King of Scotland, through the act of regicide. This is what Macbeth was discoursing through his significant soliloquy; that the obstacles he must destroy must not be seen by the eye. He does indeed know that this act is ‘black’, meaning the act is malicious, and outright wrong, though it must be done if his accomplishments are to be met. Once he murders the King Duncan, he knows that he must prolong his undeserved spot as King, as the repercussions will be that of the actions that he have committed. This is due to the Chain of Being, which he has distinctly broken. Once this hypothetical chain is broken, which by the way, represents the natural order, the universe will be plundered into chaos, and ‘righting the wrong’ will retain the natural order. Throughout the ending of the play, when Duncan’s sons plot to overthrow Macbeth, he accepts his fate, and the apparitions stated by the three witches during their second meeting with Macbeth come to fruition. He knows of his imminent downfall, and within his final moments of life, he accepts defeat. ‘I will not yield to kiss the ground before young Malcolm’s feet, and to be baited with the rabble’s curse. Though Birnam Wood be come to Dunsinane, and thou opposed, being of no woman born, yet I will try the last. Before my body I throw my warlike shield. Lay on, Macduff; and damned be him that first cries, ‘Hold, enough!’ This scene marks the promised demise of Macbeth, and good once again conquering evil. His ambitions overall lead to his demise, and if he had either followed his orders from the King, who is a higher being on the ‘Chain of Being’, or gained the royal, majestic position through an accepted process, then his death would not have been sentenced and sealed. Macbeth’s reactions to the prophecies given to him can be compared to the composure at which Banquo reacted to the prophecies handed to him. The three witches stated that Banquo’s future male lineage will be Kings, and left it at that. Banquo never went that step further, he decided that that would be good enough, and in the end, it was the more noble decision, and his death was through an act of atrocity by Macbeth, who saw Banquo as a threat who had to be eliminated. His death was not in vein, as it allowed good to overpower evil once again. It is through his ambitions, and the persuasion of his wife, Lady Macbeth, whose intention was to propel her husband to a more powerful position. Adding to that, the premonitions of the three sisters, meant that Macbeth seemingly had no choice but to chase his burning desires. He was so overcome with thoughts and feelings that lead to him being of a higher class, that it seemed so easy, and it was something that had to be done. It can be concluded that Macbeth’s collapse was due to the poor decisions made, and his overall pursuing of his ambitions to make it to the top,

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Stakeholder Coca Cola

Stakeholder We have identified nine groups of stakeholders who are either most affected by our product or who most affect our product. These are employees, consumers, customers, shareowners, government and regulatory authorities, non-government organizations, local communities and civic societies, and suppliers, including Coca-Cola AMATIL. We aim to keep these groups informed about our product and to have constructive discussions with them on issues of common concern. Through direct engagement and research, we identify the concerns of our stakeholders.We review and prioritize the issues raised and, where appropriate, change our approach. Responsibilities to stakeholder groups: * Shareholders – Generate profits and pay dividends. * Customers – provide good quality products at reasonable prices. Safety, honesty, decency and truthfulness. * Employees – health and safety at work, security, fair pay. * Suppliers – pay on time, pay fair rates for the work done, provide element of security. * Local Community – provide employment, safe working environment, minimise pollution and negative externalities – provide external benefits. Government – abide by the law, pay taxes, and abide by regulations. * Management – their aims versus those of the organisation as a whole. * Environment – limit pollution, congestion, environmental degradation, development, etc. Contribution of the stakeholder: * Shareholders: Interested parties who seek and publish financial and other business performance information about our company. * Costumers: All outlets from which our beverages are sold to Australian consumers. Employees: Individuals who operate our production facilities, sales and distribution centers and administrative offices. * Suppliers: Suppliers who provide us with ingredients, packaging, promotional materials and other goods and services. * Local community: Local territories within Australia which we operate and the organisation that support these communities. * Government: Decision-makers and implementers at local and national levels in Australia. The picture below shows how we will interact with all various groups of stakeholder.We will use different communication methods to keep stakeholders informed and to seek their input on issues of common concern, such as environmental conservation and health and wellness. http://popsop. com/42891 The Coca Cola Amatil is one of the largest bottlers of non alcoholic beverages in the Pacific region and one of the world’s top five Coca-Cola bottlers. It has operations in five countries: Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. CCA is manufacturing, selling and distributing many varies product including water, energy drinks, fruit juice, coffee and every types of Coca Cola beverages.CCA employs more than 16. 000 people in five countries across the Asia-Pacific and has access to more than 265 million consumers through over 700. 000 active customers. The company, with a market capitalization of 8 billion dollars, It is the largest non-alcoholic beverage company in the Pacific circle. The CCA in providing ALDI, Coals, Woolworth, general grocery stores, convenience stores, gas stations, Wal-Mart, Kmart, Target, drug stores that in turn sell the products to final consumers.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Gas prices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Gas prices - Essay Example A vast majority of machines in different industries are powered by gas. Apart from the industrial utility of gas, it is an extremely important element of the modern age life style. In the contemporary age, there is massive consumption of gas even on the domestic level. We use gas heaters, gas ovens, gas stoves, and gas lamps. In addition to the in-house consumption of gas, a vast majority of vehicles on the roads use gas as a secondary fuelling source that works as efficiently as petrol does. The voluminous increase in the use of natural gas does not accord with its declining natural reserves. There is an inverse relationship between the two. Gas prices have risen almost all over the world in the past few years. Much of the rapid increase in the gas prices that has occurred in the recent years can be attributed to the inverse relationship between gas production and consumption rate. Current rate of gas consumption is alarming, and gas prices are likely to increase further if the curr ent consumption rates sustain over next few years. Solution: Solution of this problem lies in wise utilization of the remaining gas. It is not advisable to completely stop the use of gas stoves or gas ovens because no alternative has yet been realized that would give better or even the same results as gas stoves or ovens do.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Theoretical physics questions answered Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Theoretical physics questions answered - Essay Example (see answer-3) The remaining questions are about the rest of the paper, it would be sufficient for me if you could quote a book and chapter where I could find an answer to the respective question: -page 5: what do you mean by "carry no energy or momentum however ha energy-momentum" This means that massless particles are meaningless in Newtonian mechanics because they carry no energy or momentum and cannot sustain any force. Now, the relativistic expression for energy and momentum which is: however allows for non-zero energy-momentum for a massless particle when and this requires |v| 1. Furthur, in order to relate the energy E and momentum p we can assume that the relation p2 = m2 is valid for m = 0, and so, a massless particle's energy E and momentum p are related by E = |p|. page 7: I do not understand the sentence: "mediator has to be given on-zero spin" This actually wants to say that in order to accommodate the observed properties of the long-range electromagnetic and gravitational interactions, we also need to give the mediator a on-zero spin. However, this is non-trivial. _ page 8: why does the P operator transform under the fundamental This is an intrinsic requirement in any space-time study dealing with real vector spaces. Here 'P' is the orthogonal parameter that is subject to fundamental representation whereas U(A) is the unitary parameter representing the Lorentz group. This stands for transformations of the vector space that preserve the length of vectors. There are two vectors having zero scalar product in one reference frame which will remain orthogonal in the rotated frame. Remember space-time is itself a fundamental dynamic variable. - page 9 : eq 14: it is not clear to me why it is sufficient to consider the... This means that massless particles are meaningless in Newtonian mechanics because they carry no energy or momentum and cannot sustain any force. Now, the relativistic expression for energy and momentum which is: however allows for non-zero energy-momentum for a massless particle when and this requires |v| 1. This actually wants to say that in order to accommodate the observed properties of the long-range electromagnetic and gravitational interactions, we also need to give the mediator a on-zero spin. However, this is non-trivial. This is an intrinsic requirement in any space-time study dealing with real vector spaces. Here 'P' is the orthogonal parameter that is subject to fundamental representation whereas U(A) is the unitary parameter representing the Lorentz group. This stands for transformations of the vector space that preserve the length of vectors. There are two vectors having zero scalar product in one reference frame which will remain orthogonal in the rotated frame. Remember space-time is itself a fundamental dynamic variable. The irreps corresponding to the massless particles are found using the irreps of the little group for the massless particles and thus this is a better option. This little group is actually isotropy group and is a subgroup of the Poincare. no "internal Yang-Mills index" ^a which in our case transforms under space-time SO(1,3) rather than internal

Theroies Behind Female Criminality Research Paper

Theroies Behind Female Criminality - Research Paper Example In trying to explain the observed phenomena, the paper analyses critical theory, feminist theory, strain theory and biological determinism. Finally, solutions borrowed from various scholars in criminology would be proposed on how to prevent female criminality in the society. Female criminality has been neglected by researchers with authors conceiving it differently. The reason behind this could be because of the fewer women who break the law than men (Burgess-Proctor, 2006). The US Department of Justice (2006) noted that as of 2005, crimes committed by women stood at 19.2% against 78.5% committed by men. But by 2008, the total males arrested for criminal offences had reduced to 75.5%, 65.2% being arrested for crimes related to property with more serious crimes attracting more male arrests (Jensen, 2012). Between 2004 and 2008, male arrests increased by 0.6% while female arrests increased by 5.1%. By mid 2008, there were about 207,700 women in jails in the US, an increase of about 33% from the year 2000. But the female population in the US comprises more than half the entire population which protects them from prosecution of crime or even detection. Hence, female criminality deserves more research than what has been accomplished so far. More so, 60% of these women in prisons in the US have children to take care of. A typical female crime committer would be young and from a minority low socio-economic condition. Majority of them would have low education and inadequate job skills to fend for the families (Hudson, 2010). As earlier indicated, female criminality involves less of violent crimes and crimes related to property; the crimes committed by women tend to be less dangerous as compared to those committed by men, a gender typical pattern (Jensen, 2012). These crimes do not violate the traditional norms for women where women would not be dominant but submissive instead. As such, it has been widely appreciated that women criminality could be considered as resista nce or victimization as opposed to being criminality. Female criminality theories Also referred to as radical criminology theory, critical criminology theory has been cited by Smart (2009) as explaining female criminology. This theory perceives women from the economic structure aspect and the social structures conflicts. Female criminality has been considered as a function of the existent capitalist system which prohibits women from equal access to economic benefits enjoyed by men. According to Price and Sokoloff (2004), spending most of the time at home hinders women from committing crime and if they do so, it would be in conjunction with their traditional roles as home makers, wives and mothers thus shoplifting, prostitution or fraud would be common crimes among them. In case of a violent crime, then it would be directed towards their lovers, husbands and children. The feminist theory and feminism has been described by Price and Sokoloff (2004) as a theory with diverse perspective that women interests have been perceived overtly politically so as to propagate social justice and equality. This theory looks at male dominance against the women in the modern society and its effect against women and on crime. This has been likened by Smart (2009) to the focus on power which has caused most men to be on top of the corporate ladder than women. Jensen (2012) gives an example of the federal level where there were 17 out of 100 senators in the US in 2010 and 76 out of 435 in the

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Broadcasting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Broadcasting - Essay Example Do they view the audience as a mere mass of individuals anonymous to other people or they treat them as having some common interests and overlapping relationships Do they treat them as mere spectators who go home after the show or potential long term clients who can bring in benefits such as profits By knowing which of these holds true can we know what and how we broadcast. The Encyclopedia Britannica (Online) defines broadcasting as the electronic transmission of radio and television signals that are intended for general public reception, as distinguished from private signals that are directed to specific receivers. In its most common form, broadcasting may be described as the systematic dissemination of entertainment, information, educational programming, and other features for simultaneous viewing. Without doubt, we are broadcasting because we are trying to capture attention of the general public, the mass media or what we would call the audience Understanding them is imperative because they are the very reason why we are broadcasting. We want them to watch, hear, talk, buy from us and even feel us. We broadcast because we want them to listen to whatever we are saying whether we are reporting, selling, acting or chatting with other people like those in talk shows. However, the way we want to gain their attention still depends on the way we view them. The term audience used to denote a congregation of people gathered in a certain space listening or viewing someone. In the days of the Romans and the Greeks, they were those who were watching and applauding orators and actors. They were those who watched the theatrical plays of Shakespeare and musical performances of Beethoven. The audience was simply regarded as people coming together a certain show. Today, there are different ways of viewing audiences and the two most prominent views are that of the audience as a 'market' and as a 'public/group'. The Audience as a Market In the view of audience as a market, the individuals composing the audience are considered as consumers. As such, we broadcast because we are trying to sell a product or service to the audience. In this type of view, effective communication as well as quality of audience experience takes the backstage. The priority is that people will be enticed to buy whatever we are selling. We are concerned with people who can buy the product and as such, we address them in a way that will appeal to their socioeconomic criteria. We are not concerned whether it is inappropriate to those in the lower echelons of society so long as it persuades those in the higher ups to prefer us. In this view, we then concern ourselves whether what we broadcast could capture the imagination of the people we are trying to persuade. We heighten the hype and creativity. We resort to gimmicks and other activities that may sometimes be unusual but is a sure attention grabber. This is actually a commonplace practice especially in corporate media where shows are filled with gimmicks design to keep the audience glued on the television so that ratings are high. The Audience as a Public/Group There exists an atomistic view of the audience- one which considers people as being too different from others and having large social distance to the broadcaster. The result of this view was a depersonalized way of broadcasting. Broadcasters

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Compare film messages Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Compare film messages - Assignment Example This is actually contrary to the main goal why the unions were established, helping people gain their rights like safe working conditions and wages commensurate to their efforts. The boss of the dock, Johnny Friendly can be said to be the Moneybag, making profits at all costs. Johnny engages in serious acts of murder, hiring people selectively. The people are filed with much terror and cannot testify against Johnny in the court. However, this silence is broken when Terry unites the people against Johnny and their strength helps to root out these leaders, which illustrates how people with unity of strength cannot be derailed by any kind of obstacle. The â€Å"Front,† refers to a comedy drama and film concerning some of the Hollywood artists that had been blacklisted in the times of live television. During this time, some of the famous directors, artists and writers had been rendered unemployable after being accused of being in support of Communism (Kasdan 65). One New York City cashier in a famous restaurant in the 1950s, Howard Prince has a friend that works for a television, since this friend is blacklisted, he requests Howard to write his name as the producer of some of the TV scripts (Kasdan 56). Howard agrees since he knows he will be entitled to s percentage of the proceeds. The scripts are accepted since they have a person not blacklisted. Later Howard lands in trouble with the Committee that investigates the entire production and programming (Dickos 67). He is made to face the reality of this industry, but accepts it gracefully since he had made some proceeds out of it. In the â€Å"Double Indemnity† film, the authors and directors of this film have used a very dark tone, which features in both thematic and visually. It illustrates of a hero that is led the wrong direction through lust and greed as well as fame. The indemnity film has made a great use of the shadows, which portray

Monday, September 23, 2019

Group Dynamics Negotiation Resolution and Conflict Essay

Group Dynamics Negotiation Resolution and Conflict - Essay Example This can only be accomplished through facing up to conflicts and addressing them, rather than steering clear of them. In one situation, there happened to arise a conflict between the management and a group of workers in a food production company. This mainly arose due to the employment terms whereby the full time employees felt that the part time employees were favored by being paid $3 more per hour while working during odd hours. The full time workers were engaged for six hours per day and were entitled to employment benefits that are required by the law. This was not applied for part time workers who only worked for 3 hours in the evening (Russett 2007). This caused a conflict that led to dissatisfaction amongst the full time employees, lowering the organizational productivity. The goal of the employees was that their hourly rates be equal to that of part time workers, while the management felt that the rationale behind the arrangement was the fact that there were differences in the employment benefits entitled to the workers. Under the prevailing conditions both parties had to find a solution since they were mutually dependent in the work place. The management had to maintain the organization’s profitability while the workers needed to maintain their job for their welfare. Group dynamics would have affected the outcome due to differences in opinion if they could not have been addressed. The tactics used by the negotiators were focused on addressing these differences in order for both parties to understand each other’s point of view. Each party went over their views and the disagreement was clear for both of them. The management began by explaining the rationale behind setting up differences in the terms of employment for the part time and full time workers. It also suggested the plans that were being developed in order to improve the working conditions of the workers, which included an extension of the paid

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Analysis of Lady in Black by Francis Cadell Essay Example for Free

Analysis of Lady in Black by Francis Cadell Essay Francis Campbell Boileau Cadell, associated with the Scottish colourists was born in Edinburgh in 1883 and by the age of 16 was studying at the Academie Julian in Paris. During his career he was very much influenced by the Fauvists such as Matisse and on his return to Scotland exhibited much of his own work in Edinburgh Glasgow and London. He died in poverty at the age of 54 after the economic climate made it difficult for him to sell any of his work. He painted landscapes (mainly those of Lona which were a favourite of his), interiors, still life and figures in oil and watercolour but is known most for his portraits of glamorous women. One such portrait, completed in 1921, is ‘Lady in Black’ painted in oil. The painting has a rather macabre mood as the woman within the picture has a reflective expression on her face as if longing for the past. There is a mirror behind her, which may also add to the idea of reflection. She is dressed in black, which adds to the morbid mood as it could indicate she is mourning the death of a loved one. Her body language also expresses sadness as her posture is quite slumped, and the small flowers seen behind her could have been meant for a grave. The shadow over her eyes caused by her large hat makes them look undefined and blurry, giving them a sad, depressed look. The painting itself is also very dark as there is very little light and the colours used are very dull and grey, adding to the dreary mood. The media is used very loosely, in an almost impressionistic manner, which may have sprung from Cadell being exposed to the work of the Impressionists who were active in Paris at the time he was being educated there. He uses strokes of bold colour such as the woman’s lips, the flowers in the background and the pink furniture reflected in the mirror. These strong reds and pinks could symbolise love or passion, which adds emphasis to the woman’s lost love. This piece was more or less typical of the Scottish Colourist movement, but also contains undertones of impressionism as not much line is used; instead different colours are layered on top of each other, as the impressionists were known to do. It is a very realistic piece with a well-expressed dreary, nostalgic mood.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Trickledown Theory Of Harajuku Cultural Studies Essay

Trickledown Theory Of Harajuku Cultural Studies Essay Change in fashion has repeatedly been explained as a trickle-down result of class replication followed by class repugnance. But wearing the latest style is no longer a dispensation that is reserved only for the upper strata. The drastic change in fashion cannot be stated as a straightforward progression of transmission from the elites to the masses. Some studies have made an accessible alternate model where sub cultural innovations bubble-up in anticipation of them being adapted by emulating marketable bodies. According to studies fashion is not something that can be promoted in an artificial manner which gives a commercial aspect to the new trends that have just come in the market. The relationship between fashion and so-called anti-fashion is a recurrently dialectical one and therefore there is no coherence in fashion mainstream. There are some trickle downs and bubble ups theories that happen which sometimes moves horizontally or sometimes they just remain where they are despite the difference in culture, class, lifestyle or age groups. Tastes are not purely dictated and we should acknowledge the complexity and idiosyncratic sensual significance of material things in peoples lives. People invest on clothes with both individual and collective facets of identity, memory and imagination. Beyond social competition, fashion comes from the primal pleasures of recital, amusement, foundation and annihilation. On Shibuya Street The hefty traffic and Shibuya are associated in its history. Shibuya was a diminutive village in Edo period, positioned at the Western edge of Central Tokyo. Because of this location, Shibuya Station on spherical Yamate Line also became the terminal for a subway line to Ginza, a railway to Yokohama and numerous additional railways. Shibuya urbanized with the railways and traffic. The railway companies also made Shibuya a well accepted shopping town. In 1934, an enormous railway company called- Tokyu Group first built the foremost department store here. This is the company which attracted many consumers who used to merely overtake Shibuya to shop at Ginza. In 1968, its rival Seibu Railway Group opened Seibu Department Store. They also opened PARCO for younger customers in 1973. Tokyu Group retaliated back by opening Tokyu Hands in 1978. This kept on happening for years and this is the way that Japan fought amongst itself to come out to be todays most sought after countries for fashion. In the streets of shibuya, a very distinct street in Japan, where fashion is at its peak and it proves to be one of the most amazing spots to be in if you are in search for the Japanese culture and how the youth of Japan have taken their history forward. There are a lot of department stores in shibuya here teenagers in group flock around every day. This hub is lively and full of energy due to the fashion carried out here. The area of shibuya is targeted towards younger generations unlike, the other parts, which are known for being wild and quirky. This area also carries forward the tag of being one of the safest shopping destinations which boosts a lot of energy in the people who come to shop there. This street is also famously known to be an environmentally clean area and a place to be when in Japan. Shibuya street fashion is one of the most fashionable, energetic, modern, and a stylish street which offers the latest trends which are creative and very well thought of. It is one of the most sorted out streets after the Harajuku Street and is also considered youthful in nature and one can easily mingle in with the crowd and be a part of them. Ganguro fashion which prominently hit the streets of Japan in 1990s had initially hit the streets of shibuya and this fashion was a new rage on its street till another decade. This fashion was just like punk which is like a legendary fashion in itself but which mutated in the form of other new style as years passed by. This trend was popular amongst the younger teenagers and young ladies in their 20s who would dye their hair blonde or orange in colour along with a deep tan and white concealer which was often used as a lipstick. On the streets of shibuya this fashion died away but newer trends kept following it with a tinge of Ganguro attitude yet attached to it. The newer fashions stuck to the basic foundation of the Ganguro fashion which was purely based on freedom and strength. The fashion in the shibuya districts are just not a focus on about being extreme in nature but it is also about the amalgamation of styles and just like how they see life to static rather than just being con stant. This street is always looking for something which has a creative aspect and a tinge of novelty in the ideas they put forward in the market. One of the most important places in the Shibuya Street is the 109, a fashion building which caters to amazingly youthful and stylish teenagers and attracts crowds easily. The most daring and wild sides of the street are boutiques like candy, centre Gai and Koen Dori which bring out an energizing vibe which is pleasingly attracting the youth. The most interesting part of visiting this street is that it will make both overtly fashionable and less fashionable people feel alike with rich and energetic youthful vibe inside them when they are on the street. Along with these people are the alternative fashion minded gurus who would like to keep to themselves and also dress likewise. Shibuya is known for rekindling the spirit within the youth through their fashion which is carefree and above all a very individualistic in nature. The center of youth fashion and culture the most spectacular thing that happens on this street is at the intersection of the four roads that go to the fashionable and stylish clothes shops. There are people walking in from all directions when the lights go green but the most surprising thing is that no one ever bumps into another person. This fact has been mentioned here purely to suggest that despite of the hysterical movements of people towards each other there are well thought of precautions which the Japanese government has taken and thus this fact has probably amazed me everything is planned, not just fashion. Shibuya is a convenient place to admittance from all directions, and today it is the most important hangout spots amongst youths. The students who live near this street and also the other youths of Japan make the most of this place by experimenting with fashions and cosmetics along with accessories in an extreme form from this street. The 109 department at the shibuya street is one of the most flashy and commercial neighboring suburb of Harajuku street. Here the people act as major players in innovating novel and fashionable sensibilities which eventually become iconic in nature due to celebrities who follow it. In this street it is not normal for the fashion houses to give an opportunity to charismatic salesgirls as forecasters because they believe in formal training in the field. This poses as a difference between both the streets- the Harajuku and the Shibuya Street. The people who undergo a formal training can be positioned in the departmental stores as designers, merchandisers, sales person, stylists, models and marketers as per the qualifications they have achieved. Difference between shibuya and Harajuku Shibuya- here girls and boys in their mid teens and above shop for sexy fashion and do not wear cute fashions at all, unlike the Harajuku people. Here the youth is more fascinated and attracted to the fashion brands existing in the market and b the top models of sexy fashion magazines. The youth of Japan are known for trying hard to create ones own individuality through fashion and thus the youth on this street also abide by the same rule. They create their individual sense by dressing in a sexy manner but on their own terms and conditions. They pair up branded clothing together and I suppose that their disposable income would be higher than the shoppers at Harajuku. Not that I think that shoppers at Harajuku do not buy branded clothing as I also think that the Japanese youth saves money only to shop and nothing else apart from gadgets of course. Harajuku- here the groups or the individual youth follow a specific fashion style that has been adopted from the past like gothic- Lolita and punk. Here the youth is willing to buy clothes from the streets because they get inspired by musicians from the past and their fashion sense surrounds the trends that are ongoing and that are further merged with the fashions of the past. The street of Uhara on the Harajuku Street is called the black alley as it has casual clothes on its disposal. Lot of people here at Harajuku also get influenced by the kei culture which means doing something and thus like I said people here create their individual recognition through the clothes they wear but in a lot of difference than the youth at shibuya. They also get influenced by what they see I magazines and thus follow trends accordingly. Despite of the fact that there are differences in both these streets, people of Japan and the outsiders form a perception that these two streets have much more common factors than differences. Both these streets highly cater to the youth of today and equally the streets are flocked with these teens. The fashion differs in a very minute way but like I mentioned earlier, the impact of street fashion in Japan is ultimate and thus both streets also get inspired from each other. Japanese youth culture As any typical youth of any other country, there was need for a new identity among the youth who wanted to look separate from the ones who dictated by standard social norms. The Harajuku street fashion expresses the costumes the youth would wear on this street. Harajuku fashion is a form of self- expression and is a way to advertise a specific community identity. All the developments of recent Harajuku street fashion are done with guerrilla marketing. The limited edition along with the designers created an environment in which the Japanese kids have been able to co-opt foreign styles, creating something particular, and a kind of fashion nationalism. Shopping has always been an integral part of the Japanese characteristics and a particular way to assert identity among the youth. The development of youth culture has accelerated the rate of trend turnover in Japan. The youth of Japan are highly fashion conscious and would enjoy being cool despite being a nerd. The fashion oriented youth in America or Europe might just fall under the category of being playful and frivolous when it comes to fashion, but the kids in Japan are very serious about fashion. Their combinations and matches are chosen with deep insight rather than on impulse dressing. They treat fashion with a lot of respect, especially boys and thus there is a magazine dedicated only for the hairstyles for them. This means that even boys in Japan are highly conscious about what they wear and how they look. In Harajuku, clothing is a reaction to the immediate reality of the street. This is a democratic idolatry prevalent there. Celebrities, fashion icons, designers, stylists, shop staff, hair stylists and publicists enjoy a great deal of notoriety in this street. Photographers of huge Japanese fashion magazines like fruits and tunes are posed all along the street to capture the ongoing fashion adorned by the youth. On this street, the styles keep coming and going in a matter of flashes. The youth moves in and out of these styles with amazing agility. The fashion at Harajuku and Shibuya are highly distinct from each other in terms of fashion trends and styles though they are only two minutes away by train from each other. Takashi- Dori is another part of the Harajuku Street which catered to food items but eventually culminated into being a fashion product stores. The Harajuku street was born when the first boutique, late night restaurants and cafes opened in that are to give the people there the feel of becoming the most hep street in Tokyo. After the Olympics, the Harajuku influenced youth and began to develop a unique sensibility and stylishness that distinguished them from groups hanging out in Tokyos other shopping areas such as Ginza. Any and every one from a designer to makeup artists who wanted to become a part of Japans fashion industry flocked to Harajuku. The street offered a charged atmosphere that mesmerized the young men and women. The young designers collections were at least one-third copies of that seasons international designs, which were typically highly sought after by the youth in the domestic market. The collection would be easily mistaken for the overseas brands and thus would be sold in wholesale to small shops. To name a few brands that existed during the 1960s were Okawa, Comme des garcons, Yohji Yamamoto, Mastudas Nicole. These brands originally existed on the streets of Harajuku and then came out to be influential names in the world. As the Harajuku boomed, with the growing numbers of young designers manufacturers and retail outlets for this new fashion scene, the small labels into what came to be known as designer character by the mid 1980s. Harajuku still maintains its unique, close knit neighbourhood feel something that is extremely unusual for a Japanese city. Its identity is still about selling the Japans most modern culture, its trends, stylishness and a certain kind of dream- a sense of possibility. Japanese street fashion magazines Once upon a time it was the fashion magazines that ruled the countrys fashion, but today teenagers themselves create their own styles to make a fashion impression and are thus represented as fashion followers in the media. During this time there was a boom in the industry of media where street style magazines offered youngsters to recruit teenagers as editorial staff, just looking at the way they dress and carry themselves. The FRUiTS magazine that launched itself in 1997 was started to document the emerging street fashion movements which totally focused on the outfits of the wearer and the detail of the same, with minimum advertisements. The photos also gave out details of the wearer who was spotted wearing the fashion on the street. The business magazine named WIRED has had a regular column in its magazine since the time it started, about the Japanese Schoolgirl Watch, trying to follow up of their fads. SUBCULTURES Japanese street fashion and adaptations of its culture has been prominent among the youth of Japan since decades. There are many subcultures that the Japanese youth follow and each of them dress according to their own choice of the category they choose to dress like. The fashion districts of Harajuku, Ginza, Shinjuku and Shibuya have a huge number of youth who flock out there during weekends and pick out clothes from these streets. A few styles that the youth in Japan follow will be mentioned here; Lolita The Lolita style in general represents the world of childhood, the time before girls achieve their womanly sexuality Tanaka said, a Lolita fashion researcher. Lolita as a fashion sprung to the surface of Japanese streets in the late 70s and stayed on from then on. The inspiration has been taken from France and the United Kingdom with the touch of rococo and Victorian eras. The Japanese have adapted to these periods and brought down the fashion to being in the form of cuteness, positivity and pure class. Lolita is considered one of the most recognized forms of street fashion, not only in Japan but also in other parts of the world today. Large amount of people have followed it throughout the world today. This style came to be popular in the leading cities of Japan like Tokyo and Osaka where people accepted this fashion readily. The fashion in Lolita is pretty restricted unlike the other fashions like punk and Kawaii. The basis of all other fashions that emerged in Japan is taken from the Lolita fashion but with its own creative difference. There were many boutiques in Japan that started Lolita fashion as their core but went on to other conte mporary lines after a few decades. Some of these boutiques were- the stars shine bright and pink house. During the initial days of Lolita fashion emergence, the music groups who liked this fashion would promote it while they performed and thus this fashion started gaining popularity amongst the youth. Lolita, in USA connotes with being sexual but in Japan this fashion was not linked with looking sexy but it was mostly related to elegance and cuteness. This began as a street fashion nearly two decades ago but has now entered the mainstream movement of fashion and clothing by the youth. This fashion has also become popular and taken on the ramp which has made this style all the more famous to the outside world. The women who follow this fashion live in the world of fantasy and immaturity and refuse to grow into an adult which is taken as a rebel against certain age groups in the society. The Harajuku culture focuses on Lolita fashion as it draws a feminized aesthetic look from the Victorian dolls that are accessorized with ribbons, laces, embroidery, bonnets, corsetry, frills and ringlets in the hair. It is usually the females who make the Lolita fashion more predominant however there are few men on the streets of Harajuku who adopt the bloomers, bows and stockings which is an ideal dress code of Lolita men. Gothic Lolita It is one of the most famous among other Lolita fashions has been able to draw attention from other parts of the world. This kind of fashion has been inspired from the Victorian Goth style which is characterized by dark colours, bats, spiders and Goth icons. The Japanese, though being inspired by other cultures, make these fashions look original by adding a twist of Japanese culture in their dressing. In this fashion, the young girls pull off knee length skirts with petticoats underneath. Their blouses would have the look of Victorian era, having laces and ruffles on the hems. The look is complete with knee length socks paired with boots and accessories like bonnets and brooches. This style is clearly visible in the streets of Japan adorned by number of teenagers. This fashion is also seen at concerts and anime conventions throughout Japan and Europe along with USA in the frame. The market for this kind of clothing is increasing as there are a lot of girls sporting this look in America and Europe. In Japan, Goth is a very minor subculture with few followers, partly because the emphasis upon visual identity in Japanese youth culture makes other factors such as music and literature less important and perhaps this happens partly because Christianity and Germanic culture are not integral parts of society. Sweet Lolita It is more of a fantasy based dressing which is childlike and is connected to fairytale themes, baby animals and there is a lot of innocence in their dressing up. The most popular feature of sweet Lolita is the hello kitty which has pastel colours along with muted colours like pink, white and powder blue. This fashion is popularized as cute as it consists of large head bows, purses which look cute with pastels hues, parasols and stuffed animals which make the look more childlike and innocent. This is the exact opposite style from the classic Lolita and therefore it suits the younger generations more than the older ones. Since the followers of fashion are more from the younger generations, it is more likely that this fashion has more popularity than the classic Lolita look. Even the makeup is naturally toned which balances the outfit along with bouncy curls and stylishly tied up pony tail. The style of the sweet Lolita stands out as it is all about being pretty and modest. Wearing a b louse underneath the jumper is a must for a sweet Lolita dresser. This childlike innocence of the Lolita started in the 80s and was pioneered by many bands who were inspired by the bell shaped skirts which gave an aristocratic elegance to the wearer. The fabrics used in this style a variety of influences from the fruits, flowers and animals and accessories like bows, laces and ribbons. Many eatery places have sweet Lolitas as their mascots. This whole characteristic of being a Lolita is more about a lifestyle and being more feminine. Additionally, outfits will include things like gingham, colourful prints, lace, ribbons, and bows that emphasize cuteness above all other design elements. Often taking themes and references from Alice and Wonderland as well as imagery of cake and fruits, the design plays to a younger mentality. Shoes will also usually have a much shorter heel than most other Lolita styles because of that childlike nature, and jewellery is heavily influenced by fantasy themes, using cherries, hearts, cakes, ribbons, and bows for accessorization. Purses and bags are similarly catered to a younger mindset with stuffed animals and hearts for accessories. Punk Lolita It is a form of fashionable subculture in which teenagers dress mixing the punk look with the Lolita fashion. The silhouette of the original Lolita is intact while the colours and accessories differ. It also looks like a deconstructed and a crazy look but the youth who can carry it off well, do maintain it with a fashionable approach. They are heavily influenced by the western punk fashion but the Japanese have made it look cuter in a few aspects they adapted. It was a great roar during the 2000s along with other fashions like the gothic Lolita. This style is often more casual-looking than other Lolita styles. A typical outfit will have a mini top hat, a simple cut sew with a deconstructed Lolitaesque print, a pleated tartan skirt and chunky platform boots. Sometimes Punk Lolitas will be seen with nekomimi (cat ears), although its considered Cosplay by the majority of Lolitas. The overall look of this style is quite edgy and at the same time also cute. The influence of this style is taken from the standard punk style with hints of psychobilly. The color schemes that this style adheres by are rather in contrast to each other than a balanced color scheme black and red, black and white are the two major combinations worn by the youth who follow this style. Usually the western punk style has more of solid colors that represent the punk style but here in Japan prints such as checkerboards, diamonds, spider webs and leopard prints are considered for punk. Prints of roses, crosses and skulls are also popular amongst the wearers alo ng with a small amount of laces and frills attached to their outfits. Several fabrics are used to create layers which have on symmetry. Leather jackets and short skirts denote the look for punk- Lolitas. Punk Lolita is the only style among all the fashion prevalent in Japan that sports leg and hand warmers. The accessories donned by these fashion followers are chains, studded belts, spooky rivets, chokers and laces. Edgy bags with a plain surface would very well add to complete the punk look. There is a use of dark eye shadows, mascara and eyeliners with red or pink lipsticks to create a highlight in the all dark outfit. Classic Lolita It is one of the most traditional forms of Lolita fashions. The look is pretty mature and business like as it has colours like blue, green and red. The classic form of the Lolita fashion suits a wider age group and has more aspects of the Victorian era than any other form of Lolita fashions. This fashion is more about the floral patterns and looking classy rather than just being stuck on cuteness and bold colours. This is the main reason that it is easy for the other age groups to flaunt it. Kodona Lolita It means boy style version of Lolita. This fashion is inspired by the Victorian era boys who would dress up in prince pants which are Capri style pants cut off till the knee. Their shirts have a lot of detailing in it with laces while their accessories consist of top hats and knee length socks. Gyaru fashion It had originated in 1970s on the streets of Japan. This look was a huge rage among the girls as it focused on girly- glam style of dressing which broke all the rules of being pretty. Youngsters who followed these styles would wear man-made beauty such as wigs, fake eye lashes and nails. Not all the people who followed this kind of fashion dressed in a proactive manner, it generally varied on the choice of people who adapted only half of what this fashion consisted of. Gyaru means gal or girly in Japanese language. Though it is altogether a different subculture they have a signature look which comprises of big hair which are usually coloured slightly or curled. There is a use of circle lenses, false eye lashes and elaborately designed nails. They dress in a very trendy manner with clothes and makeup like that of a teenager in Japan. This style is also accepted by most movie stars and is often displayed in their movies as well. To imitate the Californian Barbie, which is darker than the normal Barbie, some of the followers of Gyaru even tend to tan themselves. The Gyaru fashion is also described as a prostitute chic look which comprises of wearing hot pants, platforms and over dramatized makeup. This fashion has a thin line between ugly and beautiful and has been able to separate the young women of Japan from their traditional and feminine concepts. It could grant them ownership of their self-image, provide confidence in the male-dominated public sphere where they were encouraged to be modest and acquiescent, and allow strong bonds of female alliance. Ganguro fashion It became popular among the Japanese girls in the 90s and rose to popularity in the 2000s. This fashion includes bright clothing, mini-skirts and tie-dyed sarongs. Ganguro in Japanese means black-face and this style has a peculiar style dyeing hair. The streets of shibuya and Harajuku were filled with this fashion. The look is complete if the hair is bleached completely with a deep tan skin tone along with fake lashes, white and black eye liner. The accessories stand out from the rest of the fashions and it includes bracelets, earrings, necklaces, rings and platform heel shoes. Ganguro magazines were issued where fashions of deeper tans, white lipstick and multicoloured pastel eye shadows in metallic shades were promoted. There was no specific reason that this style came into the market but it is vaguely said that the girls during those years were infatuated with the styles of Janet Jackson or perhaps Naomi Campbell. It was therefore also said to be racist in nature. Ganguro has been identified as a new fashion style imitating certain hip hop outward physical features, such as blackened faces and necks with shimmering makeup, blond or white hair, boots with solid platform soles, and bright colored tight miniskirts. As commonly recognized, such an imitation is in fact an open expression of individuality, freedom, and sexuality. There have been studies which say that Ganguro style of Japan is influenced by the hip hop culture of the west. It is also more than just the style of dance. For Japanese it is an expression to identify oneself from the standard social Japanese cultures. Ganguro is not an isolated social phenomenon, but an impact exerted by hip hop culture upon the Japanese young generation. The other nations have taken the hip hop dance, music and lyrics as an inspiration but for the Japanese it was about taking the look. This is how we know that the Japanese people are way ahead in fashion and adaptations of cultures. A lot of speculations have been made as to from where this style is being taken up from. Some say that teenage girls have adapted this fashion only because they want to rebel against wearing uniforms in order to express their individuality. Some say that there were singers who got popular wearing this style, and thats the reason the youth adapted to it. Although Ganguro as a fashion style does not fit well with traditional Japanese social standards and cultural values, it becomes popular among some girls who are just approaching adult life. Many non-Ganguro girls and boys readily accept some of the Ganguro elements, and fearing exclusion, some may often conform to the style due to peer pressures. Ganguro girls have made their own choice to not follow the pack but, instead, they have chosen a carefree and open approach to living for the moment and for escaping the feelings of being ignored or neglected at home and isolated, bullied or depressed at school. As one of the hip hop characteristics, a carefree life style is the stimulus for Ganguro girls to be largely unconcerned with money and material gain. Like all individuals, Ganguro girls want to enjoy life. They prefer to wear a flamboyant outfit and hang out with their friends for fun instead of struggling with their compelling school tasks or boring jobs.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Some researchers in the field of Japanese social and/or studies believe that Ganguro as a fashion style is the younger generations revenge against traditional Japanese society; others believe Ganguro is promoted by those who intend to change the peripheral female position in Japanese society; others believe that it is some Japanese girls explicit self-expression of sexual attractiveness; others believe that it is just some Japanese girls imitation of some elements of an African womans appearance to be a woman, and still others believe that it makes girls  Kawaii  (cute) or cool because it makes them look different from others.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Self Management Bringing Out The Best In Me Philosophy Essay

Self Management Bringing Out The Best In Me Philosophy Essay I shall be willing to give my complete self for the choices I consciously make in order to optimize the value of my continuously evolving self-awareness and self-discovery. Management has become an illusion to many people for many years. We thought that given a position, we will be able to drive people to achieve results. We were made to believe that as you pay people, we may be able to squeeze their juices to contribute to our results. But come to think of it: even a child who came from a parent and who was nurtured by the parent through the formative years wont do everything the parent wants him to do. They will still go out of their way and do things the way they want their own way. How much less can we expect an employee to subscribe to our management only because he is paid to do so? Knowing self is the prerequisite to self management. It is about self knowledge which leads to self mastery. The Book of Tao Te Ching is sure in saying that He who knows others is CLEVER; He who knows himself HAS DISCERNMENT; He who overcomes others HAS FORCE; He who overcomes himself is STRONG. Knowing self requires discernment leading to being strong. Knowledge and mastery of the self sounds more challenging than knowledge and mastery of others. You dont have to be different. You just have to be yourself. But by being yourself, you express your uniqueness. You can only be the best of what you are. You can never be the best of what you are not. The power lies within. If you wish to conquer the world, you have to first conquer yourself. But what do we need to know about ourselves? We have a false belief that we know ourselves enough because it is the person we have known since our conception. But wait! Psychologically, there are many things we do not know about the person we see in the mirror. Here is how. Our ego is that part of our personality that is in contact with reality. Ego is the neutralizer of the moralistic superego and the pleasure-driven id. The superego and the id are both blind and not based on reality. There are times however that our ego is threatened. That is when defense mechanisms are accessed to protect the ego and to attempt a state of balance. Defense mechanisms operate in the unconscious. For example, an alcoholic will use denial and say I am just an occasional drinker, and he is convinced about it. He will use rationalization and say drinking is my only stress buster because I dont have friends, and he is convinced about it. He will use dissociation and say, my quarrel and separation with my wife has nothing to do with my drinking but with her nagging personality, and he is convinced about it. The alcoholics use of the three defense mechanisms is something that he is not aware of. He gets used to it to protect his ego from the very real possibility that he is actually suffering from alcoholism. The unconscious use of the defense mechanism is anchored on the fact that it is the ego (a connection to reality) that it is trying to protect. (ego-id-superego model) This is one psychological basis for our tendency to suppress from our consciousness many aspects of lives and characteristics about ourselves which in a way is a form of self-delusion. Even the JOHARI Window, formulated by John Luft and Harry Ingham (?), proposed that there is the blind quadrant, which is known to others but is not known to self. There is also the unknown (unconscious) quadrant, which is neither known to others nor to self. That is how much unknown remains for us to explore. These quadrants offer the potentials in the human person. (illustration of johari) The Gift of Self On the more practical level, it is most worthwhile to discover what we do best that we enjoy most. XXX calls it flow. I simply call it gift. Do we do it best because we enjoy it most? Or do we enjoy it most because we do it best? A chicken and egg situation. It doesnt matter which one leads to another. But certainly, we wont do best what we dont enjoy doing, neither would we enjoy doing something we dont do best. There must be a special reason why the Supreme Being gives a special gift to each of us. It is for us to discover it, nurture it to perfection, and find its value to how you can serve others. But how many people end life journey without such discovery? What a waste! Even what is initially perceived as weakness can actually be discovered as a gift. XXX is a person born with a condition called xxx. He has no arms and feet. But he found the gift. He would inspire people by how he was able to do what people with complete extremities can do like surfing, playing golf, and play musical instrument. He would have not done it any better if he was born with limbs. And there are many other stories available in the worldwide web for us to prove that what could be initially perceived as weakness can lead to the realization of strength. What you love and your talents provide for clues to your gift. As Wolfgang puts it: the person born with a talent they are meant to use will find the greatest happiness in using it. You want to know your gift? Look at the mirror and ask yourself. What makes you different? What makes you special? What makes you loved and loveable? What makes you a child of God? I am sure, you will find an attribute, a power, a great being within you. It awaits to be unleashed, NOW. What is the best business for me? Whenever I get consulted by people who are in search of a business venture, I ask them the question, what is it that you do best that you enjoy most? The rationale is simple: what you do best is worthwhile investing in, especially when it fills a particular need in the market. What you do best will bring a product or a service that is probably best or good enough as a starting point to generate profit. What you do best is much easier to nurture and craft to perfection. It is important that I ask the question about what they enjoy most. The rationale is also simple: work stops being work when you are enjoying it. It makes you focus on what matters most because what you do brings about some degree of self fulfillment just by simply doing it. When what you do is something you enjoy most, you become more resilient, especially in the field of entrepreneurship where only the toughest survive. My life is an example. I was given the gift of tongue. God must have a reason. And everything followed after. Now, what is your gift? What have you done to nurture that gift? Step 2: CHOOSE Self After you know or discover the gift, you have to choose to use it well. You may choose to nurture it. Choice is derived from the freewill which is innate to our human nature. Some people will respond to situation based on the force of circumstances and will claim that there is no other choice. In my trainings, I usually set a bet for the audience to give me an example of a life situation where the person has no choice. On doctor challenged me and cited that he never chose to be born. Good thing he is a doctor that I was able to ask him how many spermatozoa does a man release in a sexual act. He said tens of millions. It was my chance to remind him: Doc, when your father made love with your mother, there were tens of millions of sperm released by your father! Why did you rush to win the race? It made the hall full of doctors quiet. And I closed the debate by saying: Doc, while you were a sperm, you made a choice to be the fastest and the mightiest sperm of them all. Thats because you chose to fertilize the egg. I have yet to hear a situation in life where one has no choice! The challenge of throwing bread on those who throw stones is Jesus Christs lesson of CHOICE. Reactive people respond as if there is nothing between stimulus and response. Proactive people respond aware that there is something between the stimulus and response- that is CHOICE. Stephen Covey calls being proactive as being response-able. They have the response-ability, which is the ability to choose the response. A person who believes in choices and who empowers the self using that freedom to choose will not blame others for anything. They only have themselves to blame. In so doing, that person learns, grow, become a better person. Now that I have impressed upon you that choice is inherent to our human nature, the biggest choice you have to make is to CHOOSE your SELF. You may choose to be the best person you can be based on your personal knowledge of yourself. Having been blessed with the gift of teaching, you may choose to be a great teacher. A nurse may just provide relief of pain, but may choose to care by provide a holistic nurturing to her clients. Anyone can be great. It is just a matter of choice. Famous and notorious people alike are products of the choices they make. Step 3: GIVE Self What did you have when you were born? And what dies with you? Only your SELF. What you gained in your life journey like wealth, properties, power and prestige are temporal rewards for the actions you took and the choice you made. But what could be the greatest gift to humanity but self? I used to wonder why most heroes had to die before they get acknowledged, like saints who had to die before they get beatified. Because death is the ultimate offering of the self. Even Jesus had to die to achieve our salvation. But this book is not about being hero or saint. It is about being you and giving yourself. What you are is Gods gift to you. What others have become because of you is your gift to God. It is in giving yourself that you find greater meaning in the life you are blessed to live. What do we get in knowing-choosing-giving ourselves? The more we become knowledgeable about ourselves, the more we will be able to define our vision and purpose. And from such vision and life purpose, we will be able to better choose the person we want to be. In so doing, we are able to fulfil a mission and project our authentic presence in the environment we live in. Our existence is felt, our significance is appreciated and our worth enriched. We are then able to give ourselves more genuinely. It is in sharing ourselves that we become more. It is in giving ourselves that we are given more. It creates a self-actualizing existence that puts more value to our lives and our being. Self actualization is the highest level of need. It is what not everyone will be able to reach in a lifetime. It is anchored on a hierarchy that builds upon basic to more complex needs. It is the level that makes one conclude that life is indeed worth leaving. Interview 1: Cory Quirino It took years for Cory Quirino to spread the gospel of wellness among her fellow Filipinos. Now, thanks to her relentless advocacy, wellness is one of the most happening words in town as more and more manufacturers have been jumping onto the bandwagon, developing consumer products that promote a healthy and happy lifestyle. Alternative and preventive medicine and naturopathy have likewise been booming. One of Quirinos secrets to her accomplishments is the great sense of discipline that drives her dreams. Without it, passion has no direction, she says. Wellness itself has a lot to do with balancing ones life. A lot of self-discipline goes to the day-to-day management of physical, emotional and spiritual activities that maintain ones health and beauty. The same principles can be applied in managing ones enterprises, as she has successfully demonstrated. It takes both intelligence and keeping ones cool to win the game. EQ is on equal footing with IQ, she says, if not a step higher. She adds, I believe in it as something innately God-given, something that enables an individual to tap the inner intelligence, centered on his or her ability to sense, to reflect, and to act. Quirino can attest to the fulfilment of being an entrepreneur. Only now, I am beginning to know what this feels like, she says. Sure, its risky, but the rewards are great. Your sense of freedom is underscored and heightened, and this motivates you to go further, beyond your own self-imposed limitations. Many people consider Quirino a guru or icon. This is music to my ears, she smiles, because it simply means, you have arrived, Cory!' Interview 2: Richie Cuna Richie Cuna always makes sure that his business is a step ahead of everyone elses. Being a business developer, he has been strict at beating his deadlines. I always tell my staff that we need to hit deadlines yesterday. No exemptions! , he exclaims. It has taken discipline and planning to turn Cunas visions to reality. People who are always stuck on the planning phase turn him off. I would plan things in my head days, weeks, months, or maybe even years ahead, and then I share what I want to happen, he says. In his office, he is well known for making his word happen. When he established the brand Fiorgelato, one of his several successful franchises, he planned to establish 50 branches within ten years. And so he has. Cuna has been a leader and pioneer in entrepreneurship and franchising in the Philippines. He founded and led the Association of Filipino Franchisers, Inc (AFFI). He keenly supports new businesses, brands and concepts in schools, exhibits and other activities and has helped make Filipino brands internationally competitive. He wants others to share in the satisfaction of being entrepreneurs. He relates, Ive been an employee for about 25 years, and sometimes they say when an employee leaves the office, thats the end of the storyAs an entrepreneur, the task is a 24/7 thing; your mind keeps on running because you need to finish a task or make a deadlineBut the fulfilment is different. I quit my job in banking and pursued entrepreneurship because it is more enjoyable! Nuggets of Wisdom Here are some simplified techniques on how you can make the full use of your self: Search for what you do best and enjoy most. Examine the realization of dreams and aspirations. Live in harmony with the universe. Fulfil the promise of the future through the lessons of the past and blessings of the present. Search for what you do best and enjoy most. This is the essence of your freewill. You may choose what to do and might as well do what you are best at and what gives you the greatest rewards of enjoyment. In the process, everything becomes easy in your full utilization of your greatest asset yourself. Examine the realization of dreams and aspirations. Success comes in small frequent feedings. There are small achievements that are indicators that you are getting there in time. Do an inventory of the small successes that is heading to the realization of your dreams. These are the building blocks of your immortal legacy. Live in harmony with the universe. You are part of a bigger whole. Live with it in harmony. Be nurtured by it as you contribute to its entirety. Harmonize with nature and be one of its treasures. Fulfil the promise of the future through the lessons of the past and blessings of the present. You are never a perfect being but you are learning. The past provides you lessons. The past cannot teach you, but you can learn from it. The present is a presentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ a gift. It is the most important day in your history. Count your blessings on a daily basis. Conquer the future. It promises you great things.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Charlies Attempt to Overcome the Past in Fitzgeralds Babylon Revisited :: Babylon Revisited Essays

Charlie's Attempt to Overcome the Past in Fitzgerald's Babylon Revisited Babylon Revisited is made up of different characters with different ideologies in life. The Protagonist, Charlie is a reformed alcoholic who had come back to take his daughter. Marion is Charlie's sister- in - law who dislikes him because she thinks he caused her sister's death. I think Marion is emotionally disturbed. She overacts to things that happen in everyday life. Lincoln is Marion's husband .He tries to keep things as even as possible for Marion. Loraine and Duncan are ghosts from Charlie's past and they came to haunt him at the end of the story. We are always being haunted by our past sins and Misdemeanors. Even when we have been reformed, it takes a similar incident or someone appearing from the past to remind us of what we were before. I think Charlie is a strong Character. He was able to reform himself and stop drinking. This shows that he is strong. His coming back for his daughter proves that he is aware of his Civic responsibilities and he is ready to undertake them. There is a Strong bond between him and his daughter which is definitely a plus on his side. Charlie's journey to Paris to pick up his daughter reminds me of when I visited America. I stayed for one year before I went back for my Children. I had to get to know them again. I can relate to Charlie when he told Honoria "I want to get to Know you" (9).When you stay away from you children for sometime , you feel that they have grown so much and there is so much you don't know about them. Charlie had reasons to mistrust Marion .As Fitzgerald put it " Charlie became increasingly alarmed at leaving Honoria in this atmosphere of hostility against himself; sooner or later, it will come out in a word here, a shake of head there, and some of the distrust will be irrevocably implanted on Honoria"(13). It is not easy to leave your child with some one who you Know definitely does not like you. The father and Daughter bond is a strong bond and if it is destroyed at this early age it can become very difficult to restore it. Marion was very strongly biased against Charlie. Marion was ready to give Honoria back to the father until the appearance of Duncan and Lorraine.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Free Epic of Gilgamesh Essays: Defining Humanity in Gilgamesh :: Epic Gilgamesh essays

Defining Humanity in The Epic of Gilgamesh Fifteen Works Cited Stories do not need to inform us of anything. They do inform us of things. From The Epic of Gilgamesh, for example, we know something of the people who lived in the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the second and third millenniums BCE. We know they celebrated a king named Gilgamesh; we know they believed in many gods; we know they were self-conscious of their own cultivation of the natural world; and we know they were literate. These things we can fix -- or establish definitely. But stories also remind us of things we cannot fix -- of what it means to be human. They reflect our will to understand what we cannot understand, and reconcile us to mortality. We read The Epic of Gilgamesh, four thousand years after it was written, in part because we are scholars, or pseudo-scholars, and wish to learn something about human history. We read it as well because we want to know the meaning of life. The meaning of life, however, is not something we can wrap up and walk away with. Discussing the philosophy of the Tao, Alan Watts explains what he believes Lao-tzu means by the line, "The five colours will blind a man's sight." "[T]he eye's sensitivity to color," Watts writes, "is impaired by the fixed idea that there are just five true colors. There is an infinite continuity of shading, and breaking it down into divisions with names distracts the attention from its subtlety" (27). Similarly, the mind's sensitivity to the meaning of life is impaired by fixed notions or perspectives on what it means to be human. There is an infinite continuity of meaning that can be comprehended only by seeing again, for ourselves. We read stories -- and reading is a kind of re-telling -- not to learn what is known but to know what cannot be known, for it is ongoing and we are in the middle of it. To see for ourselves the meaning of a story, we need, first of all, to look carefully at what happens in the story; that is, we need to look at it as if the actions and people it describes actually took place or existed. We can articulate the questions raised by a character's actions and discuss the implications of their consequences.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

A Time of Change in the Market Revolution Essay

1815 to 1860 was a crucial time for American commerce and urbanization that not only had strong economic influences, but also altered social and political perspectives. This time period, known as the Market Revolution, stemmed largely from the advancement in technology which led to transportation improvements and the building of railroads. Banks also contributed to the growing economy by increasing economic input and providing loans to merchants, manufacturers, and farmers. The rapid expansion of commerce and transportation had profound effects on American individuals socio-economic goals; a sense of self-confidence and domestic ideology surfaced, perpetuating westward expansion. Along with the spread of urbanization came the circulation of literary publications that fostered the spread of popular opinions; this eventually became an essential component to the many reform movements ultimately caused by the Market Revolution. All of these factors contributed to the republican ideal of individual freedom. Although the Market Revolution promoted economic and social growth through the development of technology and industry, it also led to actions threatening to republican liberties like equality and the inherent rights of man. Concerns of tyranny and disregard to the American Constitution caused many to focus on preserving the American republic through reform movements. The main driving factor of the reform movements that took place following the Market Revolution was the obscurity of republican values. Despite the positive influences the Market Revolution had on quality of life and transportation, many Americans feared the corruption of their individual liberties. They had proper reason to believe that this would be an occurrence caused by the unbalanced power that was established during the Market Revolution. One example of this unbalance was the increasing power of banks, more specifically addressed by Andrew Jackson when he vetoed the Second Bank of the United States. He asserts that the monopolized bank system undermines the rights of ordinary people because it establishes significant distinctions between classes where the upper class holds the power and dominates over the lower class. In a way, he attempts to reform the government-established powers instilled by the Second Bank of the United States by voicing how it is an abuse of power and limits economic opportunity for ordinary people. In addition to the unbalanced power created by the banks, a prominent deterrent from republican autonomy was the inequality that this instability of power caused for individual Americans. The rapid expansion of agriculture and population corresponded to the growth of slavery, which is the most pronounced example of the inequality America experienced during and after the Market Revolution. Slavery was seen by many as a direct violation of the Constitution and the inherent rights of man, which defy republican values. In the Republican National Platform, Abraham Lincoln brings to light that the inequality of slavery threatens national sovereignty, â€Å"That the maintenance of the principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the Federal Constitution, †¦ is essential to the preservation of our Republican institutions; and that the Federal Constitution, the Rights of States, and the Union of the States, must and shall be preserved.† A nationalistic togetherness, while still maintaining individual freedom, is eminent in establishing and fulfilling republic ideology. Slavery was a direct violation of man’s inalienable rights, and therefore many abolitionist movements took place in order to reform the corrupt nation. Acts of slavery and other injustices initiated by the Market Revolution that defied republican values were identified as needing reform, in William H. Seward’s speech in 1855 he said, â€Å"We must restore the demoralized virtue of the nation. We must restore the principle of equality among the members of the State –the principle of the sacredness of the absolute and inherent rights of man.† The emerging Democratic party was host to many of the promoters of personal reform and social problems, while the Whig party advocated the reform of moralism and state-sponsored entrepreneurship. One of the initial influences of the reform movements was the moral mending that was deemed necessary by Protestants in order to overcome the sins occurring in society, and enact a sense of righteousness. These ideas of self-virtue and societal justice were reflected in the Second Great Awakening and the Temperance movement in the early 1800’s. The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival that had a strong influence on women, giving them a voice in society and the ability to make an impact for the salvation of American values. The Temperance movement had a similar purpose, to promote self-perfection and eliminate the many sins that became prominent in society during the Market Revolution. The movement focused on alcohol abuse and sexual sin, and although it bolstered self improvement for many individuals, a main impact of both the Temperance movement and the Second Great Awakening was the eminent duty of women to speak out against controversial happenings. Both of these movements had strong positive effects on the preservation of the republic because they fostered public regard to individual goodness, which in turn led to other reform movements and the ability for both women and men to speak out against injustices. Both women’s rights and slaves rights were distinguished issues that violated the equality of the republic, and therefore certain groups sought reform these corrupt aspects of American society. In the 1830’s, the abolitionist movement was initiated in an attempt to dissolve the sin of slavery. Although abolition became the source of immense controversy and even violence, the movement against slavery allowed slaves like Robert Glenn and Frederick Douglass to share their stories in an attempt to bring to light the corruption taking place in America. These movements did in fact help persuade many groups of people, mostly Democrats, of the Constitutional and moral violations that slavery inhibits. However, westward expansion and distinct divisions between the nation made it difficult to prevent the spread of slavery. Despite the fact that abolitionist movements did not have immediate effects on the eradication of slavery, it did open doors for public opinion and womens righ ts. In 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott spoke out at the Seneca Falls Convention against the unequal status of women and how it reflects tyranny rather than the individual liberties of a republic. They emphasize the main point of both slavery and women’s rights reformations, â€Å"The world has never yet seen a truly great and virtuous nation, because in the degradation of woman the very fountains of life are poisoned at their source.† These movements did impact the protection of republicanism through the expression of activists who exposed the exploitation and inequality occurring due to slavery and unbalanced privileges of women. The Market Revolution had a domino effect on the fabric of the republic. It propelled economic growth and industrial expansion which then perpetuated unbalanced power within the government. This obscured the political values of individuals and brought about such a dramatic shift in thinking regarding opportunity and personal liberties that many people were concerned about the loss of republicanism. Members of the public like the Grimke sisters, as well as members of the government like Andrew Jackson, identified the injustices of inequality that were caused by the Market Revolution and felt as though reform was necessary to preserve the republic. The reform movements that took place, such as the Second Great Awakening and the abolitionist movement, exposed the pollution of republican ideals like individual freedom and egalitarianism. Although these messages were controversial between the sectional division of the North and South, reform movements still established a voice for the republic and eventually managed to preserve the prominent aspects of the republic. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Andrew Jackson, â€Å"Veto Message,† in John Majewski, History of American Peoples, 1840-1920: A Primary Source Reader (Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt 2006), 5. [ 2 ]. Abraham Lincoln, â€Å"Republicans Adopt a Strong Anti-Slavery Platform,† in Majewski, 50. [ 3 ]. William H. Seward, â€Å"The Dangers of Extending Slavey, and the Contest and the Crisis,† in Majewski, 41. [ 4 ]. Roark, Johnson, Cohen, Stage, Hartmann, The American Promise: A History of the United States, 330. [ 5 ]. Roark, Johnson, Cohen, Stage, Hartmann, The American Promise: A History of the United States, 322. [ 6 ]. Roark, Johnson, Cohen, Stage, Hartmann, The American Promise: A History of the United States, 323. [ 7 ]. Roark, Johnson, Cohen, Stage, Hartmann, The American Promise: A History of the United States, 324. [ 8 ]. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, â€Å"The Seneca Falls Convention Advocates Complete Equality† in Majewski, 24.